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Cycle | National Geographic Society
There are three main types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Each of these rocks are formed by physical changes—such as melting, cooling, eroding, compacting, or deforming—that are part of the rock cycle.
are formed from pieces of other existing rock or organic material. There are three different types of
(biological), and chemical.
, like sandstone, form from
, or pieces of other rock.
, like coal, form from hard, biological materials like plants, shells, and bones that are compressed into rock.
The formation of
rocks begins with the weathering, or breaking down, of the exposed rock into small fragments. Through the process of erosion, these fragments are removed from their source and transported by wind, water, ice, or biological activity to a new location. Once the sediment settles somewhere, and enough of it collects, the lowest layers become
so tightly that they form solid rock.
, like limestone, halite, and flint, form from
precipitate is a
compound—for instance, calcium carbonate, salt, and silica—that forms when the solution it is dissolved in, usually water, evaporates and leaves the compound behind. This occurs as water travels through Earth’s crust,
the rock and dissolving some of its minerals, transporting it elsewhere. These dissolved minerals are precipitated when the water evaporates.
are rocks that have been changed from their original form by immense heat or pressure.
have two classes: foliated and nonfoliated. When a rock with flat or elongated minerals is put under immense pressure, the minerals line up in layers, creating foliation.
is the aligning of elongated or platy minerals, like hornblende or mica, perpendicular to the direction of pressure that is applied. An example of this transformation can be seen with granite, an igneous rock. Granite contains long and platy minerals that are not initially aligned, but when enough pressure is added, those minerals shift to all point in the same direction while getting squeezed into flat sheets. When granite undergoes this process, like at a tectonic plate boundary, it turns into gneiss (pronounced “nice”).
Nonfoliated rocks are formed the same way, but they do not contain the minerals that tend to line up under pressure and thus do not have the layered appearance of foliated rocks.
like bituminous coal, limestone, and sandstone, given enough heat and pressure, can turn into nonfoliated
like anthracite coal, marble, and quartzite. Nonfoliated rocks can also form by metamorphism, which happens when magma comes in contact with the surrounding rock.
(derived from the Latin word for fire) are formed when molten hot material cools and solidifies.
can also be made a couple of different ways. When they are formed inside of the earth, they are called intrusive, or plutonic,
. If they are formed outside or on top of Earth’s crust, they are called extrusive, or volcanic,
Granite and diorite are examples of common intrusive rocks. They have a coarse texture with large mineral grains, indicating that they spent thousands or millions of years
down inside the earth, a time course that allowed large mineral crystals to grow.
Alternatively, rocks like basalt and obsidian have very small grains and a relatively fine texture. This happens because when magma erupts into lava, it cools more quickly than it would if it stayed inside the earth, giving crystals less time to form. Obsidian cools into volcanic glass so quickly when ejected that the grains are impossible to see with the naked eye.
Extrusive igneous rocks can also have a vesicular, or “holey” texture. This happens when the ejected magma still has gases inside of it so when it cools, the gas bubbles are trapped and end up giving the rock a bubbly texture. An example of this would be pumice.
Extra Information About describe how the granite of a mountain could change first into sandstone and then into quartzite That You May Find Interested
If the information we provide above is not enough, you may find more below here.
The Rock Cycle | National Geographic Society
Metamorphic Rocks Lesson #14 | Volcano World
Rocks and the Rock Cycle – Weathering Module Introduction
Frequently Asked Questions About describe how the granite of a mountain could change first into sandstone and then into quartzite
If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic describe how the granite of a mountain could change first into sandstone and then into quartzite, then this section may help you solve it.
How is quartzite formed from sandstone?
Pure quartzite is typically white to grey, though quartzites frequently occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of hematite. Quartzite is formed from sandstone through heating and pressure that is typically associated with tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
What processes cause the rocks to change when granite transforms into gneiss or sandstone transforms into quartzite?
Answer and explanation: Gneiss is created through the process of metamorphosis, in which the protolith, a type of rock, changes into a different type of rock under the influence of high temperatures and pressures but not hot enough to melt it.
How might a granite change into a sedimentary rock?
Once exhumed (brought toward the surface through erosion of the rock layers above and uplift through faulting), granite is subject to weathering and erosion, linking to the sedimentary part of the rock cycle. Granite is formed from solidified silicic magma within the Earth’s crust.
In the quiz about Stone Mountain, what causes sandstone to transform into metamorphic rock?
Sandstone is subjected to “intense heat and pressure,” which is what causes sandstone to transform into metamorphic rock at Stone Mountain.
What process transforms sandstone into quartzite?
Through contact metamorphism, the sandstone (silica) that surrounds an igneous intrusion transforms into quartzite, and the limestone (carbonate) transforms into marble.
How did quartzite get its name?
High-temperature and high-pressure conditions, typically associated with tectonic movement and compression within orogenic belts, are typically what lead to the metamorphic transformation of the primary quartz dominated sedimentary rocks (for example, sandstone) into quartzite.
How does granite become sandstone?
Over millions of years, layers of sand-filled sediment accumulated on the ocean floor. Gradually, the sediments were pressed together and cemented to form sandstone, a sedimentary rock. Gradually, water and weather wore away granite through the process of erosion, turning these granite particles into sand that was carried by streams to the ocean.
What type of metamorphic rock, gneiss, results from the transformation of granite into an igneous rock?
When granite is subjected to extreme heat and pressure, it transforms into the metamorphic rock known as gneiss. Granite is an igneous rock that forms when magma cools relatively slowly underground. It is typically made up primarily of the minerals quartz, feldspar, and mica.
How does a mountain create sandstone?
Sand, silt, tiny pieces of rock, and other sediments washed into the water between the two mountain ranges and, over time, formed layers and layers of sediments, one on top of the other.
What makes granite and quartzite different from one another?
Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that forms when quartz-rich sandstone is transformed by the heat, pressure, and chemical activity of metamorphism. In contrast to granite, which is an igneous rock known for being very hard, quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is almost entirely composed of quartz, the hardest substance on earth.
How is sandstone gradually created?
When sand grains are compacted and cemented together over thousands or millions of years, sedimentary rocks called sandstone are created. The sand grains are frequently made of the minerals quartz or feldspar that were worn off other rocks and ground down into pebbles.
Quartzite is created by what kind of metamorphism?
Marble is metamorphosed limestone; when it forms, the calcite crystals tend to grow larger, and any sedimentary textures and fossils that may have been present are destroyed. Quartzite and hornfels are some examples of non-foliated metamorphic rocks.