10 explain how the basilar membrane allows us to differentiate sounds of different pitch Ideas

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ifferent Frequencies

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June 2, 2014

Researchers gained insights into how cells in the auditory system become organized to hear different frequencies. The findings could lead to new approaches for certain kinds of hearing loss.

The human ear can detect a wide range of frequencies, from the low rumbles of distant thunder to the high-pitched whine of a mosquito. The sensory cells that detect these sounds are called hair cells, named for the hair-like strands that cluster on their tops. Hair cells are spread across a flat surface called the basilar membrane, which is rolled like a carpet and tucked into a snail shell-shaped structure in the inner ear called the cochlea.

Each of our roughly 16,000 hair cells is dedicated to a narrow frequency range. These cells are ordered along the basilar membrane according to the frequencies they detect. Those that sense low pitches are at one end; those that detect high pitches are at the other. While this stepwise arrangement of hair cells on the basilar membrane—the tonotopic map—has been known for years, how the cells become ordered this way was unknown.

A research team led by Drs. Zoe F. Mann and Matthew W. Kelley at NIH’s National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) suspected that a molecular concentration gradient may guide the cells during development. Like numbers on a ruler, the cell positions might be marked by levels of a signaling molecule.

To investigate, the team examined the auditory organs of 6-day-old chick embryos. The basilar papilla in chickens, like the cochlea in mammals, has hair cells arranged along the length of a basilar membrane according to frequency. The study was published on May 20, 2014, in Nature Communications.

The scientists identified a concentration gradient of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) across the length of the basilar papilla at the time of chick hair cell formation. Bmp7 is a signaling protein produced during embryonic development that is known to play a role in the development of bone and kidneys.

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The researchers showed that Bmp7 promotes the development of low-frequency-sensing hair cells. When they bathed developing basilar papillas in a solution containing Bmp7, they found that all the hair cells—even those at the high-frequency end—developed characteristics of low-frequency-sensing hair cells. These results suggest that during embryonic development, high levels of Bmp7 at one end of the basilar papilla signal the formation of low-frequency-sensing hair cells. Decreasing levels of Bmp7 along the length of the basilar papilla map result in a gradual tuning to higher frequencies.

In an accompanying paper in the same journal, a team led by Drs. Benjamin R. Thiede and Jeffrey T. Corwin at the University of Virginia School of

Medicine, working in collaboration with the NIDCD team, revealed that another signaling molecule, retinoic acid, acts in concert with Bmp7 to position cells.

“The findings could open doors to therapies that take advantage of Bmp7’s navigational talents to direct the formation of regenerated sensory cells that are tuned to respond to a specific frequency,” says Dr. James F. Battey, Jr., director of NIDCD. “Since many forms of hearing loss are limited to specific frequencies, this approach could lead to replacement sensory cells that are tailored to individual needs.”

Bmp7 is also found in the inner ear of mammals. Kelley’s team now plans to use mouse models to examine the role of Bmp7 in patterning the mammalian auditory system.

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References: A gradient of Bmp7 specifies the tonotopic axis in the developing inner ear. Mann ZF, Thiede BR, Chang W, Shin JB, May-Simera HL, Lovett M, Corwin JT, Kelley MW. Nat Commun. 2014 May 20;5:3839. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4839. PMID: 24845721. Retinoic acid signalling regulates the development of tonotopically patterned hair cells in the chicken cochlea. Thiede BR, Mann ZF, Chang W, Ku YC, Son YK, Lovett M, Kelley MW, Corwin JT. Nat Commun. 2014 May 20;5:3840. doi: 10.1038/ncomms4840. PMID: 24845860.

Funding: NIH’s National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and the American Hearing Research Foundation.

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Hearing Different Frequencies – NIH

Hearing Different Frequencies - NIH

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  • Sumary: Researchers gained insights into how cells in the auditory system become organized to hear different frequencies. The findings could lead to new approaches for treating hearing loss.

  • Matching Result: These cells are ordered along the basilar membrane according to the frequencies they detect. Those that sense low pitches are at one end; …

  • Intro: Hearing Different Frequencies You are here June 2, 2014 Researchers gained insights into how cells in the auditory system become organized to hear different frequencies. The findings could lead to new approaches for certain kinds of hearing loss. The human ear can detect a wide range of frequencies, from the…
  • Source: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/nih-research-matters/hearing-different-frequencies

Basilar Membrane – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Basilar Membrane - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

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  • Sumary: Velibor Isailovic, Nenad Filipovic, in Computational Modeling in Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, 2020

  • Matching Result: The mechanical characteristics of the basilar membrane allow the cochlear to resolve different frequencies at different spatial locations along the cochlea.

  • Intro: Basilar Membrane – an overviewComputer modeling of cochlear mechanicsVelibor Isailovic, Nenad Filipovic, in Computational Modeling in Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, 20207 Finite element modelingThe geometry of the human organs is pretty unstructured. Using the data from medical images, it is possible to reconstruct geometry of some organs or part of organs…
  • Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/basilar-membrane

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Transduction of Sound | Biology for Majors II – Lumen Learning

Transduction of Sound | Biology for Majors II - Lumen Learning

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  • Sumary: Vibrating objects, such as vocal cords, create sound waves or pressure waves in the air. When these pressure waves reach the ear, the ear transduces this mechanical stimulus (pressure wave) into a nerve impulse (electrical…

  • Matching Result: Different regions of the basilar membrane vibrate according to the frequency of the sound wave conducted through the fluid in the cochlea.

  • Intro: Transduction of Sound | Biology for Majors II Learning Outcomes Describe the process of creating sound Vibrating objects, such as vocal cords, create sound waves or pressure waves in the air. When these pressure waves reach the ear, the ear transduces this mechanical stimulus (pressure wave) into a nerve impulse…
  • Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wm-biology2/chapter/transduction-of-sound/

Pitch Perception and Hearing Loss | Introduction to Psychology

Pitch Perception and Hearing Loss | Introduction to Psychology

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  • Sumary: The ability to locate sound in our environments is an important part of hearing. Localizing sound could be considered similar to the way that we perceive depth in our visual fields. Like the monocular and binocular cues that…

  • Matching Result: The place theory of pitch perception suggests that different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies.

  • Intro: Pitch Perception and Hearing Loss Learning Objectives Explain how we encode and perceive pitch and localize sound Describe types of hearing loss Pitch Perception We know that different frequencies of sound waves are associated with differences in our perception of the pitch of those sounds. Low-frequency sounds are lower pitched,…
  • Source: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/waymaker-psychology/chapter/reading-pitch-perception-and-hearing-loss/

Transmission of sound within the inner ear | Britannica

Transmission of sound within the inner ear | Britannica

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  • Sumary: The mechanical vibrations of the stapes footplate at the oval window creates pressure waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli of the cochlea. These waves move around the tip of the cochlea through the helicotrema into the scala tympani and dissipate as they hit…

  • Matching Result: The cochlea analyzes sound frequencies (distinguishes pitch) by means of the basilar membrane, which exhibits different degrees of stiffness, or resonance, …

  • Intro: human ear – Transmission of sound within the inner ear Entertainment & Pop Culture Geography & Travel Health & Medicine Lifestyles & Social Issues Literature Philosophy & Religion Politics, Law & Government Science Sports & Recreation Technology Visual Arts World History On This Day in History Quizzes Podcasts Dictionary Biographies…
  • Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/ear/Transmission-of-sound-within-the-inner-ear

Frequently Asked Questions About explain how the basilar membrane allows us to differentiate sounds of different pitch

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How does the basilar membrane enable us to distinguish between sounds with varying pitches?

Our approximately 16,000 hair cells are each tuned to a specific frequency range and are arranged along the basilar membrane according to the frequencies they detect, with low pitch cells at one end and high pitch cells at the other.

What responses does the basilar membrane have to various frequencies of sound?

The entire basilar membrane, from the base to the apex of the cochlea, responds to intense low-frequency sounds, but as one moves from the apex to the base of the cochlea, closer to threshold, sounds of progressively higher frequencies drive it most effectively (see Fig. 14.13C).

What part does the basilar membrane play in hearing sounds?

Peripheral Auditory System The basilar membrane is the primary mechanical component of the inner ear. It has varying degrees of mass and stiffness along its length, and its vibration patterns separate incoming sound into individual frequencies that activate various cochlear regions.

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How is the basilar membrane impacted by pitch?

According to the place theory of pitch perception, the basilar membrane’s base responds best to high frequencies, while the tip responds best to low frequencies, and that different parts of the membrane are sensitive to different frequencies.

How enables us the basilar membrane?

The movement of the basilar membrane causes the cilia of the hair cells to gently brush against the surface of the tectorial membrane, which is essentially how humans are able to hear through their ears.

How do you know what pitch your ear is hearing?

Hair cells, sensory cells that sit on top of the basilar membrane, ride the wave. Hair cells near the wide end of the snail-shaped cochlea pick up higher-pitched noises, like a baby crying, while those closer to the center pick up lower-pitched noises, like a big dog barking.

How does sound frequency align the basilar membrane?

This place coding of frequency is translated into discrete populations of AN fibers responding to individual frequencies shown in Fig. at low sound pressure levels, where the basilar membrane responds most strongly to low frequencies at its apex and to high frequencies at its base.

How do we hear different sound pitches?

The eardrum moves back and forth when sounds hit it; different pitches, or how high or low a sound is, causes the eardrum to move more or less. Your middle ear has three tiny bones inside it, called ossicles, which form a chain from the eardrum to the inner ear.

What part of the ear controls sound pitch?

The cochlea, which is concerned with hearing and resembles the spiraled shell of a snail, determines the pitch of a sound by responding to vibrations that cause the stereocilia to move.

Where on the basilar membrane do high-pitched sounds make contact?

High-frequency sounds localize near the base of the cochlea, while low-frequency sounds localize near the apex of the cochlea, where the basilar membrane is widest (0.42?0.65 mm) and least stiff, and narrowest (0.08?0.16 mm) and stiffest.

How does the brain decide what pitch to use?

There are two widely accepted theories: place and time. The “place code” theory focuses on where in the inner ear a sound activates, while the “time code” theory contends that pitch is a matter of auditory nerve fiber firing rate.

What enables us to distinguish between various pitches?

Conductive hearing loss is caused by physical damage to the ear or eardrum and may be improved by hearing aids or cochlear implants. According to the place theory of hearing, we hear different pitches because different areas of the cochlea respond to higher and lower pitches.

Quizlet? How does the ear distinguish between sounds of various frequencies and pitches?

We are able to distinguish between sounds of different pitches thanks to the basilar membrane, a structure located inside the spiral organ.

What exactly is sound pitch, and how is it determined?

A sound’s pitch is determined by how frequently the sound waves that create it vibrate; sounds with high frequencies, like 880 Hz, are thought to have a high pitch, while sounds with low frequencies, like 55 Hz, are thought to have a low pitch. Low-frequency sounds include a bass drum, thunder, and a man’s deep voice.

How do we distinguish between various pitches and volumes?

Pitch, which refers to how high or low something sounds, and volume, which refers to how loud or soft something sounds, are both related to the strength of the vibrations that produce the sound.

a section of the YouTube video Understanding Musical Pitch: A Music Theory Crash Course

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Who or what controls the sound’s pitch?

The frequency of a sound determines its pitch, and the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch or shrillness of the voice.

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