10 how are minerals extracted from the earth and processed Ideas

Contents

Below is information and knowledge on the topic how are minerals extracted from the earth and processed gather and compiled by the show.vn team. Along with other related topics like: How are minerals found, how ore minerals are found, mined and processed for human use, Why is mineral extraction important, Where are minerals found in the Earth, Mineral extraction examples, Where are minerals found in the body, Where can minerals be found in food, Environmental impacts of mineral extraction.


Mineral Extraction: Crash Course Geography #44

xtraction – an overview

Volume 4

A. Cook, … A. Fourie, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019

Conclusion

Mineral extraction is associated with a diverse range of potentially adverse impacts on environmental and human health. A broad framework to assess potential direct and indirect risks is required, and must incorporate exposure information from geology, geomechanics, toxicology, and epidemiology. To optimize community safety, a major goal is to ensure that all stages of mineral extraction, processing, and use are conducted within a context of careful and transparent health surveillance and environmental monitoring. As with many industries, the balance between risks and benefits of mining must be carefully calibrated. Mining offers a combination of both beneficial and adverse health outcomes for workers and communities. Despite the numerous past ongoing failures to minimize the impacts of mining, it is by no means inevitable that mining in a particular region will lead to profound and long-term human and environmental damage. The approaches and skills offered by the emerging field of medical geology is an important step to avoid penalizing industries and resource-dependent societies, while at the same time optimizing community health.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489116756

CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS

M.L. BRUSSEAU, … J.F. ARTIOLA, in Environmental Monitoring and Characterization, 2004

RESOURCE EXTRACTION/PRODUCTION

Mineral extraction (mining) and petroleum and gas production are major resource extraction activities that provide the raw materials to support our economic infrastructure. An enormous amount of pollution is generated from the extraction of natural resources from the environment. The EPA’s Toxic Releases Inventory report lists mining as the single largest source of toxic waste of all industries in the United States. Mineral extraction sites, which include strip mines, quarries, and underground mines, contribute to surface and groundwater pollution, erosion, and sedimentation. The mining process involves the excavation of large amounts of waste rock to remove the desired mineral ore. The ore is then crushed into finely ground tailings for chemical processing and separation to extract the target minerals. After the minerals are processed, the waste rock and mine tailings are stored in large, above-ground piles and containment areas. These waste piles, along with the bedrock walls exposed from mining, pose a huge environmental problem due to metals pollution associated primarily with acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage is caused when water draining through surface mines, deep mines, and waste piles comes in contact with exposed rocks that contain pyrite, an iron sulfide, causing a chemical reaction. The resulting water is high in sulfuric acid and contains elevated levels of dissolved iron. This acid runoff also dissolves heavy metals such as lead, copper, and mercury, resulting in surface and groundwater contamination.

Petroleum and natural gas extraction pose environmental threats such as leaks and spills occurring during drilling and extraction from wells, and air pollution as natural gas is burned off at oil wells. The petroleum and natural gas extraction process generates production wastes, including drilling cuttings and muds, produced water, and drilling fluids. Drilling fluids, which contain many different components, can be oil based, consisting of crude oil or other mixtures of organic substances such as diesel oil and paraffin oils, or water based, consisting of freshwater or seawater with bentonite (clay) and barite (BaSO4). Each component of a drilling fluid has a different chemical function. For example, barite is used to regulate hydrostatic pressure in drilling wells. As a result of being exposed to these drilling fluids, drilling cuttings and muds contain hundreds of different substances. This waste is usually stored in waste pits, and if the pits are unlined, the toxic chemicals in the spent waste cuttings and muds, such as hydrocarbon-based lubricating fluids, can pollute soil, surface, and groundwater systems. Produced water is the wastewater created when water is injected into oil and gas reservoirs to force the oil to the surface, mixing with formation water (the layer of water naturally residing under the hydrocarbons). At the surface, produced water is treated to remove as much oil as possible before it is reinjected, and eventually when the oil field is depleted, the well fills with the produced water. Even after treatment, produced water can still contain oil, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, and chemicals used to increase hydrocarbon extraction.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780120644773500187

Chemical Contaminants

M.L. Brusseau, J.F. Artiola, in Environmental and Pollution Science (Third Edition), 2019

12.3.5 Sources: Resource Extraction/Production

Mineral extraction (mining) and petroleum and gas production are major resource extraction activities that provide the raw materials to support our economic infrastructure. An enormous amount of pollution is generated from the extraction and use of natural resources. The Environmental Protection Agency’s Toxic Releases Inventory report lists mining as the single largest source of toxic waste of all industries in the United States. Mineral extraction sites, which include strip mines, quarries, and underground mines, contribute to surface water and groundwater pollution, erosion, and sedimentation (see Chapter 14). The mining process involves the excavation of large amounts of waste rock in order to remove the desired mineral ore (Fig. 12.6). The ore is then crushed into finely ground tailings for chemical processing and separation to extract the target minerals. After the minerals are processed, the waste rock and mine tailings are stored in large aboveground piles and containment areas (see also Chapter 14). These waste piles, along with the bedrock walls exposed from mining, pose a huge environmental problem because of the metal pollution associated primarily with acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage is caused when water draining through surface mines, deep mines, and waste piles comes in contact with exposed rocks containing pyrite, an iron sulfide, causing a chemical reaction. The resulting water is high in sulfuric acid and contains elevated levels of dissolved iron. This acid runoff also dissolves heavy metals such as lead, copper, and mercury, resulting in surface and groundwater contamination. Wind erosion of mine tailings is also a significant problem.

Fig. 12.6

Fig. 12.6. Acid mine drainage has collected at the bottom of this pit mine in Bisbee, Arizona.

(Photo courtesy Alex Merrill.)

Petroleum and natural gas extraction pose environmental threats such as leaks and spills that occur during drilling and extraction from wells, and air pollution as natural gas is burned off at oil wells (Chapter 14). The petroleum and natural gas extraction process generates production wastes including drilling cuttings and muds, produced water, and drilling fluids. Drilling fluids, which contain many different components, can be oil based, consisting of crude oil or other mixtures of organic substances like diesel oil and paraffin oils, or water based, consisting of freshwater or seawater mixed with bentonite and barite. Each component of a drilling fluid has a different chemical function. For example, barite is used to regulate hydrostatic pressure in drilling wells. As a result of being exposed to these drilling fluids, drilling cuttings and muds contain hundreds of different substances. This waste is usually stored in waste pits, and if the pits are unlined, the toxic chemicals in the spent waste cuttings and muds, such as hydrocarbon-based lubricating fluids, can pollute soil, surface, and groundwater systems. Produced water is the wastewater created when water is injected into oil and gas reservoirs to force the oil to the surface, mixing with formation water (the layer of water naturally residing under the hydrocarbons). At the surface, produced water is treated to remove as much oil as possible before it is reinjected, and eventually when the oil field is depleted, the well fills with the produced water. Even after treatment, produced water can still contain oil, low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, inorganic salts, and chemicals used to increase hydrocarbon extraction.

Mined and extracted resources can also be potential pollutants once they are used for production. For example, fossil fuels are key resources for energy production. Coal-burning power plants produce nitrogen and sulfur oxides, which are known to be the primary causes of acid rain (see Chapter 17). In addition, fossil fuel combustion produces carbon dioxide, which is a primary culprit in global climate change.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128147191000124

Volume 6

Peter Doyle, in Encyclopedia of Geology (Second Edition), 2021

Environmental Impacts of Mineral Extraction

The environmental impacts of mineral extraction varies according to the type of mineral and the extent of its deposit, with the significance of the impact changing throughout the working life of a mine or quarry. Often, negative impacts related to its exploitation continue long after the deposits have been worked and are no longer economically viable. It is estimated that a mean of 0.3% of the land surface has been affected by mining, amounting to some ~ 400,000 km2 (Hooke and Martín-Duque, 2012). Naturally with this scale of operations, impacts can be severe. Typical issues are aspects of mine operation themselves (Fig. 3), the impact of mining subsidence, the release of toxic materials during and after mining, dealing with mine wastes, and post-exploitation quarry or mine restoration.

Fig. 3

Fig. 3. Ochre water from acid-mine drainage associated with a coal tip in Lynemouth, UK.

Image: Courtesy of Liam Bullock.

There is a broad range of issues associated with mining. Quarries produce blast noise and vibration, which can lead to increased rock-fall and groundwater pollution. Dust introduced into the atmosphere can be troubling to adjacent communities, especially where particulate matter contains potentially harmful metals. Smelting emissions from metal mines also increase the potential for acid rain and windblown distribution of toxic metals. Restoration and stabilization of wastes are essential, but these can be difficult for a variety of reasons, particularly when vegetation that could be useful in binding surfaces is inhibited by the toxicity of the waste material itself.

The release into the local environment of potentially toxic substances is a particular problem. For example, acid mine drainage—associated with the oxidation of iron sulfides in mines—can be problematic, especially where the mine operations have concluded (Gray, 1997). This is particularly the case as the mining cavities fill with water and produce problematic outflow, including iron-rich (ochre) waters from abandoned coal and base metal mines (Fig. 4). The resulting acidity of the water can lead to elevated concentrations of Co, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn—some of which are readily soluble and, therefore, available for absorption by aquatic organisms (e.g. Krishna and Govil, 2004). Additionally, the widespread use of cyanide or mercury to release gold in some mining operations, if not properly managed, has caused environmental problems.

Fig. 4

Fig. 4. Active tipping area of an operating landfill in Perth, Western Australia.

Image: Ashley Felton, Public Domain.

Other waste materials are a growing issue, particularly where there is opencast extraction. About 50 million tons/year of waste rock from coal-mining are generated in the limited area of the thickly populated Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland resulting in 380 coal-mining waste dumps (Szczepanska and Twardowska, 1999). Although much waste rock is being reused for civil engineering purposes in the same area, not all can be utilized in this way.

Quarry and mine restoration is also an important environmental remediation task. For mines, it is important, first of all, to ensure the safety of the underground workings themselves and then to monitor such issues as the build-up of gases and acid mine drainage. In other cases, the mine workings may present a hazard in the form of future subsidence. Pit-head machinery and processing works, which may have used chemical processing, are also be a concern that requires specialist attention. Finally, the mine wastes themselves, whether in ponds or dumps, must be dealt with. For quarries, restoration demands reflect the nature of the materials quarried. For example, production-blasted quarry faces in crystalline rock can be unsafe and their instability must be mitigated. Restoration depends very much on the projected end use of the quarry; if left as a void, then faces will require engineering attention. This is particularly so given that many quarries are now being used for “brownfield” development. In other cases, the void will be backfilled with inert material, or landfill—though pressure is on to reduce this approach.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095489124558

Section III Arctic Lands

Scott Elias, in Threats to the Arctic, 2021

The impacts of oil and mineral extraction used to be limited to very small areas in the Arctic, but they are expanding. This chapter revisits the conflict between preserving the Arctic and developing its resources for financial gain, national power and prestige, and geopolitical place marking. Since Renaissance times, outsiders have gone to the Arctic mainly to exploit its natural resources. These days, most northern countries have sought to balance the conservation of nature with resource extraction. The main exception is Russia, which continues to exploit mineral and petroleum resources throughout its Arctic regions with little or no effort to protect the environment.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128215555020040

Fieldwork preparation

In Functional Assessment of Wetlands, 2009

C.3.11 Land-use and management: mining and extraction

Includes: gravel extraction; mineral extraction; quarrying.

C.3.11.1a

Are any areas within the AA currently undergoing mining, quarrying or extraction of any form (other than peat mining)?

a.

No indication of mining, quarrying or extraction

b.

Historical areas of mining, quarrying or extraction, currently inactive

c.

Currently active areas of mining, quarrying or extraction.

d.

Unknown

C.3.11.2

Are any areas within the CA currently undergoing mining, quarrying or extraction of any form (other than peat mining)?

a.

No indication of mining, quarrying or extraction

b.

Historical areas of mining, quarrying or extraction, currently inactive

c.

Currently active areas of mining, quarrying or extraction.

d.

Unknown

C.3.11.3

Record on AA Map 2 the location and extent (by shading with a pencil) of mining, quarrying or extraction activities within the AA, using the code MINEX.

C.3.11.4

Record on CA Map 1 the location and extent (by shading with a pencil) of mining, quarrying or extraction activities within the CA, using the code MINEX.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781855738348500039

Beneficial uses and valorization of reverse osmosis brines

Domingo Zarzo, in Emerging Technologies for Sustainable Desalination Handbook, 2018

11.4.2.9 Other processes

There are other less common processes for mineral extraction from brines. One of these reported methods for salt extraction is the removal of inorganic compounds via supercritical water [33]. Supercritical water appears when water is over its critical pressure and temperature, which produces a behavior between gases and liquids. This technology includes different stages of precipitation and separation with energy recovery and temperature recovery.

Chemical precipitation of salts was also proposed by Jibril and Ibrahim [34] for the extraction of chemicals from brines by means of processes involving chemical reaction to convert NaCl into Na2CO3, NaHCO3, and NH4Cl or techniques such as the eutectic freeze crystallization as a novel technique for salt separation from water streams [35].

Although it was not exactly designed as a method for mineral production, the SPARRO process (slurry precipitation and recycling RO) forces the controlled precipitation of soluble salts with seeded crystals and then it could be combined with any of the above-mentioned technologies.

Other technologies for salt removal or production are combined or hybrid processes including RO, NF, and precipitation. Almarsi et al. [36] obtained Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 and CaSO4 from brine in a two-stage RO with an intermediate NF with precipitation, and Telzhensky et al. [37] also proposed NF to separate magnesium ions for post RO stabilization. Alternatively, concentrate from NF could be used for struvite precipitation from wastewater.

Finally, mineral extraction of brines by chemical and biological precipitation processes and pelletized lime softening have been also tested by different researchers.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128158180000114

SITE-SPECIFIC SILVICULTURE | Reclamation of Mining Lands

A.J. Moffat, in Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, 2004

Site Monitoring and Maintenance

A forest established on sites reclaimed after mineral extraction is usually more susceptible to destructive agents such as drought, insect attack, or infertility than that on undisturbed land. It is therefore vital that attention be paid to the performance of the forest as it develops, especially in its early years. Regular site visits are necessary to check protective measures and the efficacy of operations such as weed control. Tree failure should be investigated and remedies put in place in case of significant loss. In addition, monitoring of water quality may be necessary for those sites where there is a risk of degradation of water quality, and consequent pollution to surface or groundwaters supplied from the site.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0121451607002106

Lessons learned from New Orleans on vulnerability, resilience, and their integration

Michael J. Zakour, in Creating Katrina, Rebuilding Resilience, 2018

Economic Growth

Because of its reliance on shipping and mineral extraction industries, economic growth in New Orleans was historically slow, a structural constraint caused by a lack of social development. The few industries in New Orleans, such as oil and tourism, periodically declined during oil busts and national economic downturns (Freudenburg et al., 2009). The economy of New Orleans has never been well diversified (Marks, 2010a, 2010b).

The severe disruption in the tourism, seafood, and oil industry after Katrina was a significant threat to livelihoods in New Orleans. For example, the disaster lead to disruption of tourism, and an exacerbation of income stability for both performers and teachers of music. People in New Orleans, however, had some access to alternate livelihoods after Katrina (Downey, 2016). Mentoring for musicians helped in the formation of new opportunities in music, through traditional brass bands, performances at restaurants and clubs, and performances during tours (Morris & Kadetz, This Volume, Chap. 10).

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012809557700017X

Application of Cloud Computing Technology in Mining Industry

S.K. Chaulya, G.M. Prasad, in Sensing and Monitoring Technologies for Mines and Hazardous Areas, 2016

7.5.3.10 Process Improvement

Mining industries need process improvements across all facets including mineral extraction, processing, transportation, and marketing to remain cost efficient and gain a firm foothold in the competitive market. Application of business process management (BPM) helps analyze and optimize mining organization’s processes, promotes better collaboration as well as coordination among various departments to improve efficiencies and ensure best results (www.actgov.org/knowledgebank/whitepapers/Documents/Sponsor%20White%20Papers/IBMCloud.pdf). BPM can automate field reporting systems to improve operations and maintenance by up-to-date operational information. Cloud computing can provide a relatively inexpensive solution to ensure relevant and accurate information to sales and marketing personnel on production schedules, output and inventory across a wide variety of product specifications.

Mining companies can extract benefits in at least four areas by use of BPM technology. It can help improve operations and maintenance by providing managers with up-to-date operational information. It can establish better collaboration and coordination between production and sales. Mining companies are highly dependent on the reliability of the equipment and vehicles used for mining and transportation of their products. Cloud computing can play a key role in determining how successful a company’s operation and management efforts are in maximizing the uptime of machinery and vehicles used in mining, handling, and storage. It can be used to automate the recordkeeping for each vehicle and piece of equipment, keep track of warranties, and maintain planned schedules. Breakdowns and unplanned repairs can be monitored and best practices can be established for operating each unit. BPM can be used to set up a cost-effective repository quickly and efficiently for operating manuals and engineering drawings. This would allow access for employees from any department in the company as well as outside parties who have been given permission.

There are now several firms that offer BPM software products. Each product has its own unique features and user interface, but what they have in common is the ability to automate almost any business process regardless of industry or functional area.

Read full chapter

URL: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128031940000076

Extra Information About how are minerals extracted from the earth and processed That You May Find Interested

If the information we provide above is not enough, you may find more below here.

Mineral Extraction – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Mineral Extraction - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

  • Author: sciencedirect.com

  • Rating: 4⭐ (789607 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 1⭐

  • Sumary: A. Cook, … A. Fourie, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019

  • Matching Result: The mining process involves the excavation of large amounts of waste rock to remove the desired mineral ore. The ore is then crushed into finely ground tailings …

  • Intro: Mineral Extraction – an overviewVolume 4A. Cook, … A. Fourie, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Health (Second Edition), 2019ConclusionMineral extraction is associated with a diverse range of potentially adverse impacts on environmental and human health. A broad framework to assess potential direct and indirect risks is required, and must incorporate exposure…
  • Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/earth-and-planetary-sciences/mineral-extraction

Mining | National Geographic Society

Mining | National Geographic Society

  • Author: nationalgeographic.org

  • Rating: 4⭐ (789607 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 1⭐

  • Sumary: Mining extracts useful materials from the earth. Although mining provides many valuable minerals, it can also harm people and the environment.

  • Matching Result: In surface mining, the ground is blasted so that ores near Earth’s surface can be removed and carried to refineries to extract the minerals.

  • Intro: Mining | National Geographic SocietyMining is the process of extracting useful materials from the earth. Some examples of substances that are mined include coal, gold, or iron ore. Iron ore is the material from which the metal iron is produced.The process of mining dates back to prehistoric times. Prehistoric people…
  • Source: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/mining/

10.1: Mineral Resources and Extraction – Biology LibreTexts

10.1: Mineral Resources and Extraction - Biology LibreTexts

  • Author: bio.libretexts.org

  • Rating: 4⭐ (789607 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 1⭐

  • Sumary: A resource is anything that can be useful, which covers quite a bit. In geology, we generally refer to things that can be commercially useful as resources, but not all resources are…

  • Matching Result: Also known as in-situ leach (ISL) mining, this technique can be used to extract mineral resources that are soluble in water. In solution mining …

  • Intro: 10.1: Mineral Resources and Extraction Last updated Save as PDF Page ID85641 Resources A resource is anything that can be useful, which covers quite a bit. In geology, we generally refer to things that can be commercially useful as resources, but not all resources are necessarily converted to money. Resources can be…
  • Source: https://bio.libretexts.org/Sandboxes/tholmberg_at_nwcc.edu/Introduction_to_Environmental_Science/11%3A_Conventional_and_Sustainable_Energy/10.1%3A_Mineral_Resources_and_Extraction

Frequently Asked Questions About how are minerals extracted from the earth and processed

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how are minerals extracted from the earth and processed, then this section may help you solve it.

How are earth’s minerals extracted?

The three main techniques for removing minerals from the earth are placer mining, surface (open pit) mining, and underground mining.

How are minerals for Class 8 mined from the earth?

The process of removing minerals from rocks buried beneath the earth’s surface is known as mining. Minerals that are found at shallow depths are removed by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-pit mining. Minerals can also be extracted by drilling or quarrying (Fig. 3.3).

What steps are involved in getting minerals out of the ground?

Quarrying, which generates a lot of noise or air pollution, is the process of removing rock, sand, or minerals from the ground or hills in order to produce materials for construction or other uses.

How are the minerals transformed?

Four general types of unit operations can be used in mineral processing: comminution, which reduces particle size; sizing, which separates particle sizes using screening or classification; concentration, which makes use of physical and surface chemical properties; and dewatering, which separates solids from liquids.

How are minerals discovered, extracted, and refined?

When miners discover rock that contains mineral ore, they must first remove the rock from the ground, a process that can be extremely labor-intensive and displace millions of tons of dirt. After the rock has been removed from the ground, it must then be crushed by large machinery in one of two main ways: smelting or electrolysis.

For fourth grade, how are minerals extracted from the earth?

Mining is the process of removing minerals from the earth by excavating portions of the earth that contain the mineral. These portions of the earth are then subjected to additional physical and chemical processing to enrich the mineral to levels that allow it to be sold to users.

Class 6: How are minerals obtained from the earth?

The process of mining is used to obtain minerals, which are then extracted from ore bodies or reefs and used as either raw materials for industries or as sources of energy.

How are minerals extracted and refined?

Surface mining can be destructive to the surrounding landscape, leaving enormous open pits behind. Underground mining involves the removal of ores from deep within the earth, while surface mining involves blasting the ground in order to remove ores close to the Earth’s surface and transport them to refineries to extract the minerals.

The mining and processing of mineral resources.

The target minerals are extracted during the mining process by crushing the desired mineral ore into finely ground tailings, which are then subjected to chemical processing and separation.

What four processes result in the production of minerals?

The four main types of mineral formation are: (1) igneous, or magmatic, in which minerals form from a melt; (2) sedimentary, in which minerals form as a byproduct of a process called sedimentation, which uses fragments of other rocks that have been weathered or eroded as its raw material; and (3) metamorphic, in which…

What is the procedure used to create minerals?

Minerals are deposited from salty water solutions on Earth’s surface and underground. Minerals form when rocks are heated enough that atoms of various elements can move around and join into different molecules.

Which three methods are used to extract minerals?

These techniques, which primarily involve the following three processes: 1) mining, 2) drilling, and 3) quarrying, all aid in the extraction of minerals from the earth’s surface or from below it.

What steps are taken to extract minerals, please 3?

Minerals and Power Resources (i) Open cast mining: In this technique, minerals that are shallowly buried are removed by scraping away the top layer. (ii) Shaft mining: In this technique, deep bores, or “shafts,” are made to reach mineral deposits that are deeply buried. (iii) Drilling: In this technique, deep wells are bored to extract minerals.

Read More:  10 how far is mercury from the sun in miles Ideas

Share this post