10 how did climate and geography influence river valley civilizations Ideas

Below is information and knowledge on the topic how did climate and geography influence river valley civilizations gather and compiled by the show.vn team. Along with other related topics like: in what ways was the geography different in these river valleys?, Importance of River Valley civilizations, River Valley civilizations characteristics, River Valley civilizations worksheet PDF, before judaism was established by the ancient hebrews, most river valley civilizations practiced—, 4 River Valley civilizations similarities and differences, River Valley civilizations timeline.


ndus Valley Civilization & Climate Change’s Impact

Climate Change Likely Caused Migration, Demise of Ancient Indus Valley Civilization

Mohenjo-daro is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city built around 2600 BCE that was abandoned after 1900 BCE. (Photo credit: suronin / Shutterstock.com)


November 13, 2018

More than 4,000 years ago, the Harappa culture thrived in the Indus River Valley of what is now modern Pakistan and northwestern India, where they built sophisticated cities, invented sewage systems that predated ancient Rome’s, and engaged in long-distance trade with settlements in Mesopotamia. Yet by 1800 BCE, this advanced culture had abandoned their cities, moving instead to smaller villages in the Himalayan foothills. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) found evidence that climate change likely drove the Harappans to resettle far away from the floodplains of the Indus.

“There’s a powerful lesson for today. If you look at Syria and Africa, the migration out of those areas has some roots in climate change.”

– Liviu Giosan

Beginning in roughly 2500 BCE, a shift in temperatures and weather patterns over the Indus valley caused summer monsoon rains to gradually dry up, making agriculture difficult or impossible near Harappan cities, says Liviu Giosan, a geologist at WHOI and lead author on the paper that published Nov. 13, 2018, in the journal Climate of the Past.

“Although fickle summer monsoons made agriculture difficult along the Indus, up in the foothills, moisture and rain would come more regularly,” Giosan says. “As winter storms from the Mediterranean hit the Himalayas, they created rain on the Pakistan side, and fed little streams there. Compared to the floods from monsoons that the Harappans were used to seeing in the Indus, it would have been relatively little water, but at least it would have been reliable.

Evidence for this shift in seasonal rainfall—and the Harapans’ switch from relying on Indus floods to rains near the Himalaya in order to water crops—is difficult to find in soil samples. That’s why Giosan and his team focused on sediments from the ocean floor off Pakistan’s coast. After taking core samples at several sites in the Arabian Sea, he and his group examined the shells of single-celled plankton called foraminifera (or “forams”) that they found in the sediments, helping them understand which ones thrived in the summer, and which in winter.

Once he and the team identified the season based on the forams’ fossil remains, they were able to then focus on deeper clues to the region’s climate: paleo-DNA, fragments of ancient genetic material preserved in the sediments.

Read More:  10 what conditions in the roman empire allowed christianity to grow while the empire declined? Ideas

“The seafloor near the mouth of the Indus is a very low-oxygen environment, so whatever grows and dies in the water is very well preserved in the sediment,” says Giosan. “You can basically get fragments of DNA of nearly anything that’s lived there.”

During winter monsoons, he notes, strong winds bring nutrients from the deeper ocean to the surface, feeding a surge in plant and animal life. Likewise, weaker winds other times of year provide fewer nutrients, causing slightly less productivity in the waters offshore.

“The value of this approach is that it gives you a picture of the past biodiversity that you’d miss by relying on skeletal remains or a fossil record. And because we can sequence billions of DNA molecules in parallel, it gives a very high-resolution picture of how the ecosystem changed over time,” adds William Orsi, paleontologist and geobiologist at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, who collaborated with Giosan on the work.

Sure enough, based on evidence from the DNA, the team found that winter monsoons seemed to become stronger—and summer monsoons weaker—towards the later years of the Harappan civilization, corresponding with the move from cities to villages.

“We don’t know whether Harappan caravans moved toward the foothills in a matter of months or this massive migration took place over centuries. What we do know is that when it concluded, their urban way of life ended,” Giosan says.

The rains in the foothills seem to have been enough to hold the rural Harapans over for the next millennium, but even those would eventually dry up, likely contributing to their ultimate demise.

“We can’t say that they disappeared entirely due to climate—at the same time, the Indo-Aryan culture was arriving in the region with Iron Age tools and horses and carts. But it’s very likely that the winter monsoon played a role,” Giosan says.

The big surprise of the research, Giosan notes, is how far-flung the roots of that climate change may have been. At the time, a “new ice age” was settling in, forcing colder air down from the Arctic into the Atlantic and northern Europe. That in turn pushed storms down into the Mediterranean, leading to an upswing in winter monsoons over the Indus valley.

“It’s remarkable, and there’s a powerful lesson for today,” he notes. “If you look at Syria and Africa, the migration out of those areas has some roots in climate change. This is just the beginning—sea level rise due to climate change can lead to huge migrations from low lying regions like Bangladesh, or from hurricane-prone regions in the southern U.S. Back then, the Harappans could cope with change by moving, but today, you’ll run into all sorts of borders. Political and social convulsions can then follow.”

Also collaborating on the study was Ann G. Dunlea, Samuel E. Munoz, Jeffrey. P. Donnelly, and Valier Galy of WHOI; William D. Orsi of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München; Marco Coolen and Cornelia Wuchter of Curtin University in Australia; Kaustubh Thirumalai of Brown University; Peter D. Clift of Louisiana State University; and Dorian Q. Fuller of University College, London.

The work was supported by the National Science Foundation’s Division of Ocean Sciences and internal WHOI funds.

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is a private, non-profit organization on Cape Cod, Mass., dedicated to marine research, engineering, and higher education. Established in 1930 on a recommendation from the National Academy of Sciences, its primary mission is to understand the oceans and their interaction with the Earth as a whole, and to communicate a basic understanding of the oceans’ role in the changing global environment. For more information, please visit www.whoi.edu.

We use cookies to analyze site usage and improve user experience. By continuing on this site, you consent to their use. Read our Privacy Policy for more info and to amend settings. OK

Extra Information About how did climate and geography influence river valley civilizations That You May Find Interested

If the information we provide above is not enough, you may find more below here.

Read More:  10 how did the trade relationship between china and europe change in the early nineteenth century? Ideas

Ancient Indus Valley Civilization & Climate Change's Impact

Ancient Indus Valley Civilization & Climate Change's Impact

  • Author: whoi.edu

  • Rating: 5⭐ (730571 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 2⭐

  • Sumary: The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization was thriving 4,000 years ago until a sudden migration led to its demise. A new study from the WHOI found evidence that climate change likely drove the Harappans to resettle far away from the…

  • Matching Result: The Ancient Indus Valley Civilization was thriving 4000 years ago until a sudden migration led to its demise. A new study from the WHOI …

  • Intro: Ancient Indus Valley Civilization & Climate Change’s Impact Mohenjo-daro is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city built around 2600 BCE that was abandoned after 1900 BCE. (Photo credit: suronin / Shutterstock.com) November 13, 2018 More than 4,000 years ago, the Harappa culture thrived in the Indus River Valley of what…
  • Source: https://www.whoi.edu/press-room/news-release/climate-change-likely-caused-migration–demise-of-ancient-indus-valley-civilization/

The River Valley Civilizations – History Haven

The River Valley Civilizations - History Haven

  • Author: historyhaven.com

  • Rating: 5⭐ (730571 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 2⭐

  • Sumary: A surplus of agricultural production led to the rise of complex human societies, or civilizations. With the need of agricultural societies to irrigate, it is not surprising that many civilizations emerged in river valleys. The River Valley civilizations…

  • Matching Result: The River Valley civilizations that emerged on the Yellow River ( China ), the Indus River ( India ), the Nile River ( Egypt ), and between the Tigris and …

  • Intro: The River Valley CivilizationsA surplus of agricultural production led to the rise of complex human societies, or civilizations. With the need of agricultural societies to irrigate, it is not surprising that many civilizations emerged in river valleys. The River Valley civilizations that emerged on the Yellow River (China), the Indus…
  • Source: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/The%20River%20Valley.htm

Indus River Valley civilizations (article) – Khan Academy

Indus River Valley civilizations (article) - Khan Academy

  • Author: khanacademy.org

  • Rating: 5⭐ (730571 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 2⭐

  • Sumary: Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class…

  • Matching Result: By 1800 BCE, the Indus Valley climate grew cooler and drier, and a tectonic event may have diverted or disrupted river systems, which were the lifelines of the …

  • Intro: Indus River Valley civilizations (article) | Khan Academy If you’re seeing this message, it means we’re having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you’re behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.
  • Source: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/world-history-beginnings/ancient-india/a/the-indus-river-valley-civilizations

Geography: The Determining Factor in Civilization's Success

Geography: The Determining Factor in Civilization's Success

  • Author: thecollector.com

  • Rating: 5⭐ (730571 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 2⭐

  • Sumary: Geography can explain much about the world. The subject is incredibly broad, but holds many secrets about why human civilization is how it is.

  • Matching Result: Most ancient civilizations were formed around major rivers, especially when those led to the sea. Living far away from the rivers mostly meant …

  • Intro: Geography: The Determining Factor in Civilization’s Success Think about where you were born. Maybe you still live there. Think of where you went to school, how big or small your neighborhood was, what type of friends you had. Do you remember what places you frequented for amusement or entertainment, what…
  • Source: https://www.thecollector.com/geography-factor-in-civilization-success/

How Did Geography Affect River Valley Civilizations Essay

How Did Geography Affect River Valley Civilizations Essay

  • Author: benjaminbarber.org

  • Rating: 5⭐ (730571 rating)

  • Highest Rate: 5⭐

  • Lowest Rate: 2⭐

  • Sumary: Effects of Geography on the River Valley Civilizations The developments of early civilizations in Egypt, China, India, and Mesopotamia were greatly influenced by their geographical locations which allowed them to each adapt to their environment in many different…

  • Matching Result: These ancient river valley civilizations were all affected by surrounding rivers, landscapes, and environmental changes such as climate. Accordingly, all four …

  • Intro: How Did Geography Affect River Valley Civilizations Essay Essay on Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, WaterEffects of Geography on the River Valley Civilizations The developments of early civilizations in Egypt, China, India, and Mesopotamia were greatly influenced by their geographical locations which allowed them to each adapt to their environment in many…
  • Source: https://benjaminbarber.org/how-did-geography-affect-river-valley-civilizations-essay/

Frequently Asked Questions About how did climate and geography influence river valley civilizations

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how did climate and geography influence river valley civilizations, then this section may help you solve it.

Read More:  10 in what places is hail most likely to form Ideas

How do geography and climate influence how a civilization grows?

For instance, rivers bring water and enable agricultural development, while mountains or deserts offer protection and create a barrier. Geography and the environment play a significant role in the emergence and success of nearly every civilization.

What role did geography play in the development of early civilizations?

Governments and states emerged as rulers gained control over larger areas and more resources, frequently using writing and religion to maintain social hierarchies and consolidate power over larger areas and populations. Governments and states emerged as rulers gained control over larger areas and more resources.

What caused the river valley civilization to flourish?

The Sumerians in Mesopotamia invented the wheel, sailboat, and cuneiform writing. The Egyptians developed an advanced civilization along the banks of the Nile. The first civilizations emerged in fertile river valleys where farmers could grow an abundance of food due to favorable geographic conditions.

What geographic benefits did settling in a river valley offer?

People learned that they could stay in one place and grow enough food to feed their community if they were near a water supply because the land along the rivers is fertile, and if there is fertile land, then crops can be grown and animals can be raised if there is enough food and water for them.

What impact did climate have on civilizations?

Since then, many civilizations have blossomed into greatness and then vanished into ruins, many crops have grown year after year, and a reliable source of food has freed people to settle down and develop culture.

What effects does climate have on civilization?

According to direct impact mechanisms, severe and cumulative climate impacts, such as rising sea levels, drought, flooding, and extreme heat, could jeopardize water availability, agriculture, and other fundamental pillars of civilization (8, 9).

How did geography impact the civilizations in the river valleys?

The first civilizations chose to settle near rivers because they offered a steady supply of drinking water, made the land fertile for growing crops, made it easy to transport goods and people, and allowed people to fish and hunt the animals that came to drink water.

Which geographical feature did the earliest civilizations of the river valleys locate near?

The first great civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt, all developed in river valleys, with Mesopotamian civilization thriving close to the Tigris River and Egyptian civilization thriving close to the Nile.

What distinguishes a civilization in a river valley?

The river valley civilizations are distinguished from earlier civilizations by three key characteristics: A) a strong centralized political power; B) a highly hierarchical society; and C) a significant artistic development.

What shared characteristics did the river valley civilizations have?

It makes sense: you need water and food to build a large, non-mobile society, and we’ve also noticed that most of these earliest civilizations tend to share one thing in common: access to fertile soil and fresh water.

What significant geographical features can be found in the plain of the river valley?

Answer: Alluvial fans, which are formed when streams flowing from higher levels break into foot slope plains of low gradient, are significant geomorphological features found in river valley plains. Typically, streams flowing over mountain slopes carry very coarse load.

What geographical characteristics did the early river valley?

The Indus Valley Civilization, Ancient Egypt (on the Nile), Mesopotamia (along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers), and Chinese civilization (along the Yellow River) are just a few examples of early river valley civilizations.

Which geographical characteristic played the biggest role in the rise of the first river valley civilizations?

River valleys’ rich soil helped early civilizations grow and prosper.

What geographical feature did the four river valley civilizations occupy?

Although each of the major four river valley civilizations was situated along a river for a similar reason, the Indus, Yellow, Nile, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia, they had very different political systems, religions, languages, and cultures.

Share this post