10 how did french involvement in the fur trade affect native american family and gender relationships? Ideas

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es Indigenous People and the French

In the early 1600s, French explorers made alliances with the Algonquins, Montagnais, and Hurons to gain access to rich fur territories. Indigenous peoples pursued these alliances with the French as a means of securing a wide range of European manufactured goods, but cloth, firearms, and metal weapons were among the most sought after.

By the early 1700s, the fur trade was firmly established in the Great Lakes region. The French empire was based on the fur trade in this region and required Native American alliances to sustain it. Native people and the French traded, lived together, and often married each other and built families together. Native Americans in the Great Lakes and Mississippi valley regions often incorporated Frenchmen into their societies through marriage and the ritual of the calumet — the ceremonial pipe that brought peace and order to relationships and turned strangers into kinfolk. Throughout New France, many Native Americans converted to the Catholic faith, settled in French mission villages, attended Mass, and wore crucifixes. Many Native Americans, however, continued to practice their traditional religion or to observe a mixture of the two, and the French did not resort to forced conversions as the Spanish did.

Voyageurs (travelers in French) were men hired to work for the fur trade companies to transport trade goods throughout the vast territory to rendezvous posts. At the rendezvous points, these goods were exchanged for furs, which were then sent to larger cities for shipment to the east coast. Many traders and voyageurs married Native American women and were integrated into their Native kinship networks, frequently trading exclusively within their particular community. The French and Native people lived together in an often egalitarian fashion, ate the same foods, dressed similarly, and suffered the same hardships. As a result of generations of intermarriage, cultural differences began to blur as “mixed” children entered the fur trade. The French and Native trading system created a unique fur trade culture consisting of large communities with people of diverse heritage.

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French-Native relations also brought chaos to the region. The fur trade brought the spread of guns, contagious diseases, and alcohol. French demand for Native slaves resulted in Native people raiding other Indigenous communities. Slavery existed in North America long before Europeans introduced the transatlantic slave trade. Native Americans often took their enemies captive rather than killing them and held them as subordinate people. Sometimes they gave these people as gifts while making alliances, at other times families adopted them in place of deceased relatives. But European colonialism introduced different concepts of slavery, brought new slave peoples to America from Africa, and drove Native-Native slave raiding to unprecedented levels. Slavery was an integral part of the fur trade during this period.

Trade with the French flowed along the extensive network of waterways from French settlements along the St. Lawrence River like Montreal and Québec City, to posts in the interior at Mackinac and the upper Mississippi. The French empire depended on maintaining a network of Native alliances, and so French officials, traders, and officers tried to employ diplomacy, tact, and respect for Native culture. These relations sustained the business of the fur trade. The French traded iron tools, kettles, wool blankets and other supplies for the furs to make hats, while Native peoples exchanged furs for goods from around the world.

Resources

  • Brown, Jennifer S. H. Strangers in Blood: Fur Trade Company Families in Indian Country. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1980.
  • Gilman, Carolyn. Where Two Worlds Meet: The Great Lakes Fur Trade. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1982.
  • Gitlin, Jay. Bourgeois Frontier: French Towns, French Traders, & American Expansion. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.
  • Nute, Grace Lee. The Voyageur. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1987.
  • Podruchny, Carolyn. Making the Voyageur World: Travelers and Traders in the North American Fur Trade. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.
  • Podruchny, Carolyn and Laura Peers, eds. Gathering Places: Aboriginal and Fur Trade Histories. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.
  • Ray, Arthur J. Indians in the Fur Trade: Their Role as Trappers, Hunters, and Middlemen in the Lands Southwest of Hudson Bay, 1660–1870. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974.
  • Sleeper-Smith, Susan. Indian Women and French Men: Rethinking Cultural Encounter in the Western Great Lakes. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2001.
  • Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670–1870. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.
  • Wingerd, Mary Lethert. North Country: The Making of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.

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Great Lakes Indigenous People and the French

Great Lakes Indigenous People and the French

  • Author: mnhs.org

  • Rating: 4⭐ (339557 rating)

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  • Sumary: In the early 1600s, French explorers made alliances with the Algonquins, Montagnais, and Hurons to gain access to rich fur territories.

  • Matching Result: The fur trade brought the spread of guns, contagious diseases, and alcohol. French demand for Native slaves resulted in Native people raiding other Indigenous …

  • Intro: Great Lakes Indigenous People and the French In the early 1600s, French explorers made alliances with the Algonquins, Montagnais, and Hurons to gain access to rich fur territories. Indigenous peoples pursued these alliances with the French as a means of securing a wide range of European manufactured goods, but cloth,…
  • Source: https://www.mnhs.org/furpost/learn/french

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The French and Native American Relations – Ancestral Findings

The French and Native American Relations - Ancestral Findings

  • Author: ancestralfindings.com

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  • Sumary: The French enjoyed much better relations with Native Americans than other European groups when they first came to American shores. Here are the reasons why.

  • Matching Result: The French enjoyed much better relations with Native Americans than other European groups when they first came to American shores. Here are the reasons why.

  • Intro: The French and Native American Relations The French enjoyed much better relations with Native Americans than other European groups when they first came to American shores. Here are the reasons why. There are all kinds of stories of hostilities between early American colonists and the Native people who were already…
  • Source: https://ancestralfindings.com/the-french-and-native-american-relations/

Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European – JSTOR

Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European - JSTOR

  • Author: jstor.org

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  • Sumary: Carol Devens, Separate Confrontations: Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European Colonization in New France, American Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3 (1986), pp. 461-480

  • Matching Result: by C Devens · 1986 · Cited by 46 — response to French criteria which Indians were forced to accept, at least in part, in order to participate in the fur trade. The economic and technological …

  • Intro: Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European Colonization in New France on JSTOR This is a preview. Log in through your library. Preview Journal Information American Quarterly represents innovative interdisciplinary scholarship that engages with key issues in American Studies. The journal publishes essays that examine American societies and…
  • Source: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2712677

Women in the fur trade, and marriage "a' la facon du pays"

Women in the fur trade, and marriage "a' la facon du pays"

  • Author: hsp-mn.org

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  • Sumary: During the fur trade, marriage a’ la facon du pays, or marriage in the manner of the country, was a marital relationship between Native women and European fur traders. Generally, the best int…

  • Matching Result: Generally, the best interests of both parties were served. Very simply put, fur traders gained helpmates to cement alliances and make a …

  • Intro: Women in the fur trade, and marriage “a’ la facon du pays”During the fur trade, marriage a’ la facon du pays, or marriage in the manner of the country, was a marital relationship between Native women and European fur traders, based on Native cultural norms and local customs rather than…
  • Source: https://www.hsp-mn.org/women-in-the-fur-trade-and-marriage-a-la-facon-du-pays/

What Role Did Native American Women Play In The Fur Trade

What Role Did Native American Women Play In The Fur Trade

  • Author: ipl.org

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  • Sumary: The role that Native American women played in the fur trade was one of proportionate importance to the exchange as a whole. It was important that there was a…

  • Matching Result: The separate and distinct duties of men and women (Sigard, 1632) reveal a society that has defined roles and expectations based on gender. There are customs …

  • Intro: What Role Did Native American Women Play In The Fur TradeThe role that Native American women played in the fur trade was one of proportionate importance to the exchange as a whole. It was important that there was a solid basis to the commercial relations of those who took part…
  • Source: https://www.ipl.org/essay/What-Role-Did-Native-American-Women-Play-P3RXGBB428VT

North American fur trade – Wikipedia

North American fur trade - Wikipedia

  • Author: en.wikipedia.org

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  • Matching Result: The North American fur trade is the commercial trade in furs in North America. Various Indigenous peoples of the Americas traded furs with other tribes …

  • Intro: North American fur trade An illustration of European and Indigenous fur traders in North America, 1777 The North American fur trade is the commercial trade in furs in North America. Various Indigenous peoples of the Americas traded furs with other tribes during the pre-Columbian era. Europeans started their participation in…
  • Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_American_fur_trade

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Frequently Asked Questions About how did french involvement in the fur trade affect native american family and gender relationships?

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how did french involvement in the fur trade affect native american family and gender relationships?, then this section may help you solve it.

How did French involvement in the fur trade affect Native Americans’ way of life?

The demand for Native slaves by the French led to Native people raiding other Indigenous communities. Slavery existed in North America long before Europeans introduced the transatlantic slave trade. The fur trade brought the spread of guns, infectious diseases, and alcohol.

What was one effect that Native Americans experienced from the French fur trade?

Native Americans in North America suffered from many long-term consequences of the fur trade, including starvation due to severely depleted food supplies, dependence on European and Anglo-American goods, and negative effects from the introduction of alcohol—which was frequently traded for furs.

What impact did the French have over time on Native Americans?

Western diseases introduced by Hernando de Soto’s expedition in the sixteenth century decimated the Indians throughout the French period, until survivors’ immunities slowly started to raise population levels after around 1750. The French presence had a significant impact on the tribes.

What kind of ties did the French have to Native Americans?

Indigenous people traded for European goods, formed military alliances and hostilities, intermarried, occasionally converted to Christianity, and participated politically in the administration of New France. France saw Indigenous nations as allies and depended on them for survival and fur trade wealth.

What effects did the French and Indian War have on relations with Native Americans?

By cutting off their supplies and forcing the tribes to follow the laws of the new mother country, the British exacted revenge on Native American nations that sided with the French during the war.

How did the French treat the Native Americans?

More intermarriages occurred between French settlers and Native Americans than with any other European group because they respected Native territories, their ways, and treated them as the human beings that they were.

How did the fur trade alter the way of life of the Indigenous people?

The French formed military alliances with their Indigenous allies in order to maintain good trade and social relations because the fur trade provided Indigenous peoples with European goods that they could use for gift-giving ceremonies, to raise their social status, and to go to war.

What impact did the fur trade have on the roles that women played?

The fur trade led to a significant number of Native American women marrying European traders, who used them as translators, negotiators, and grids. Some of these wives were abandoned when their husbands returned to Europe.

What gave rise to the French and Native American Wars?

It all started with a conflict over ownership of the French Fort Duquesne site at the Forks of the Ohio, where the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet, and the area that would later become Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

In the French and Indian War, did the Native Americans support France?

The Iroquois Confederacy supported the British, while the Algonquin, Lenape, Wyandot, Ojibwa, Ottawa, Shawnee, and Mi’kmaq Native Americans sided with the French.

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