10 how did industrialization increase the role of the national government Ideas

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Governments Role in Industrialization

State-led Industrialization

Fearing conquest by stronger nations, some governments pushed their societies into industrialization. These governments planned out and led the industrialization process.

Some non-colonized governments led programs to industrialize their societies using government money and planning. The goal was to prevent their domination by the industrialized nations.  

Significant attempts at industrialization happened in

State-led industrialization was not communism. 

  • Private property was encouraged.
  • Private business was promoted.
     
  • Private profit and investment were encouraged. 

State-led industrialization happened differently than industrialization in Europe and North America.  

Industrialization in Western Europe and America

State-sponsored industrialization

Industrialization was a naturally occurring change.

Industrialization was planned and managed by the government.

Private individuals and businesses owned industrial factories.

Both the state and private companies owned industrial businesses.

Industrial planning and business were left to industrialists and business leaders.

The state used government money to invest in industrialization.

Russian Industrialization

Russia successfully industrialized by focusing on the building of heavy industry and infrastructure.

In the 1850s, the vast Russian Empire, which started in eastern Europe and spread across northern Asia to the pacific, was still primarily agricultural and feudal. A lack of industrialization left Russia weak compared to its industrial rivals Britain, France, and Germany. In the 1860s, Russian Czar Alexander II (1818 – 1881) began a series of state-led reforms that pushed Russia into the industrial age.

The causes of Russian industrialization

The primary reason for Czar Alexander’s decision to focus on industrializing Russia was his defeat in the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) to the Ottoman Empire, supported by the British and French. This loss exposed Russia’s lack of modern development.

  • Russian factories could not produce enough weapons to compete with industrial powers. 
  • Russia was too dependent upon importing industrial goods from those they were fighting. 
  • Russia lacked the railways necessary to effectively move soldiers, weapons, and military supplies.

Industrialization in Western Europe and America

State-sponsored industrialization

The government planned industrialization.

Industrialization was a natural result of merchant and business activity.

Industrialization was quick and took place in just a few decades.

Early industrialization happened slowly over 150 years.

The government focused on building heavy industries like steel and military technology to strengthen the state.

Industrialization happened in heavy industry and consumer goods like textiles.

Foreign money funded industrial factories. By 1900, half of Russia’s heavy industry was foreign-owned.

Local elites and merchants wealth financed early industrial factories.

Comparing Russian and western industrialization

The effects of Russian industrialization

Russian industrialization was a remarkable success. Within thirty years, Russia went from having little industrialization to being one of the most industrialized nations in the world. Unfortunately, the Russian governing and business elite also enforced a brutal form of industrialization that exploited workers far worse than in other industrialized nations. The speed of change also made it difficult for Russian society to adapt. By the early 20th century, dissatisfaction within the Russian masses exploded into a revolution.  

By 1900 Russia was an industrial power. That year, Russia was the world’s second-largest petroleum producer and the fourth-largest steel producer. Russia had increased its railroad track from 570 miles in 1855 to 31,623 by 1905. The longest rail line was the 5,772-mile Trans-Siberian Railway, which opened in 1904, and connected Moscow in European Russia to Vladivostok in the far east.

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Industrialization had a significant role in destabilizing Russia. While all industrialized states helped business leaders keep wages low and resist union activities, inside Russia, union activities were labeled a criminal offense and harshly repressed, often using violence. With no legal way to fight to improve their lives and working conditions, urban workers in Russia broke out into two revolutions in 1905 and 1917.

  • The 1905 revolution resulted in Czar Nicholas II (1868 – 19118) promising various social, political, and economic changes. The Czar kept his power but did not deliver the promised reforms.
  • The 1917 revolution resulted in a communist takeover of Russia. Communist authorities murdered the Czar and his family in a bloody basement execution in 1918.

Czar Alexander’s earliest reforms in the 1860s ended Russia’s old aristocratic agrarian system. He began by freeing Russia’s serfs—Russia was one of the last places in Europe to allow serfdom. Unfortunately, the serfs received no land with their freedom, just debt payments to their former landowners and the government to pay for their emancipation. Conditions in the city were no better. In addition to the suppression of workers’ rights, the rapid growth of urban populations resulted in urban living conditions that were harsh and unsanitary. Like in other industrial societies, the size of the Russian middle class increased—although it remained significantly smaller than in Europe and North America.   

Japanese Industrialization

Japan successfully industrialized by focusing on building heavy industry and consumer goods. Japan became an Asian power.

On July 8, 1853, American Commodore Matthew Perry (1794 – 1858) arrived in Tokyo Bay with four heavily armed warships. Perry made it clear that there would be conflict unless Japan agreed to open its ports to American ships. Rather than risk military defeat, the Japanese decided to accept American demands.

The Meiji Restoration: Japan’s highest authority in the Edo period (1603 – 1867) had been the Shogun—a military ruler. There was an emperor, but he held no actual governing power. In 1867, anti-Shogun elites defeated the Shogun, ending the Edo period. The Japanese Emperor was again the highest authority in Japan. The 14-year-old Emperor’s name was Meiji (1852 – 1912). To prevent Japan from falling under the control of western powers, the Emperor’s government launched economic reforms to industrialize Japan.

Industrialization in Japan: Japan focused on building factories capable of producing heavy industry and consumer goods. The Japanese government was active in supporting the transition to industrial capitalism.


The government financed and built shipyards, iron smelters, and textile spinning mills.


The government also built the infrastructure required for industrialization, including coal mines, railroads, a postal system, and telegraph lines.


The government also built the infrastructure required for industrialization, including coal mines, railroads, a postal system, and telegraph lines.

Model factories: The Meiji government set up government-run model factories to promote new industries. The government designed, built, and kept the profits from these factories. The Japanese government later sold many government-run industrial factories to private ownership in the first few decades of the 20th century.

Japan prospered economically as its industrial production expanded. Their first railway opened in 1872 between Tokyo and Sakuragicho. Powering new trains and factories required coal. Japanese coal production increased from 0.6 million tons in 1875 to 21.3 million tons in 1913. Japan also began producing industrial consumer products like silk textiles. Between 1872 and 1914, Japanese raw silk production increased from 1026 tons to 12460 tons. The country’s military also became a significant producer of munitions and weapons.

Industrial wealth and the military it built turned Japan into an Asian military power. In 1910, Japan began building a Japanese empire in East Asia when it invaded and conquered the Korean peninsula. They then invaded Manchuria in Northeastern China in 1931. By the 1940s, Japan’s quest for new Asian territory led them to begin attacking the Asian colonies of the United States, Dutch, French, and British during World War II.

Industrialization transformed Japanese society. Like in other industrialized nations, the shift from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy resulted in the growth of a new urban industrial class structure.

  • A new middle class of factory managers and service providers like teachers, bankers, and doctors developed.
  • A large group of working poor who produced coal, built infrastructure, or worked in factories developed. The government suppressed union activity amongst these workers. Not until after World War II did unions become legal in Japan. However, unlike in Russia, union activity was not usually violently suppressed.

Some members of the new industrial upper and middle classes gained political representation in Japan when Emperor Meiji introduced a new constitution and democratic reforms to Japan, creating an elected parliament. Japan’s first democratic election took place in 1890. Voting was limited to male citizens over 25 who paid a minimum of 15 Japanese Yen in national taxes. In 1925, men of all social classes gained the right to vote regardless of wealth.

Failed Egyptian Industrialization

The Egyptian government attempted to industrialize Egypt but ultimately failed.

In the 1830s, under the leadership of Muhammad Ali (1769 – 1849), Egypt separated from the Ottoman Empire. Ali began a process of industrialization in Egypt to strengthen his state against reconquest by the Ottomans. Ali first increased the production of raw cotton, which he sold to Britain for use in their industrial textile factories. He then invested profits in Egypt’s own industrial production.

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Industrialization in Egypt: Ali focused industrial production on weapons and textile production. By the end of the 1830s, Egypt’s war industries had constructed nine 100-gun warships and produced 1,600 muskets monthly. Egyptian factories also produced textiles made of cotton, jute, silk, and wool. Ali allowed foreigners to build and manage big infrastructures like dams, railroads, and canals. This arrangement built big projects cheaply and without much investment of Egyptian money. The European companies that built the projects kept most of the revenue except for the small portion they provided Ali’s government.

The outcome of Egyptian industrialization

By the late 1840s, it looked like Egypt might one day become an industrial power. However, the Egyptian economy began declining in the second half of the nineteenth century. By the 1880s, Egypt was deep in debt to Britain. In 1882, Britain invaded and defeated Egypt during the Anglo-Egyptian War (July – September 1882), leading to a fifty-year British occupation of Egypt.

Egyptian industrialization failed for the following reasons:

Poor leadership: Egyptian leaders focused too heavily on cotton production. When cotton prices fell, the Egyptian economy went into a steep decline, and debt levels rose too quickly. Loans from European banks also paid for Egyptian leaders’ luxurious living standards, further increasing Egyptian debt.

Debt: Debt allowed Europeans to control the policy of the Egyptian government. In exchange for debt reduction or new loans, European countries required Egyptian leaders to change their laws in ways that primarily benefited European economies.

Europeans prevented Egyptian economic success: Europeans worked to make Egyptian goods more expensive and less competitive. One policy forced on Egypt in exchange for continued financial assistance required them to eliminate import tariffs (taxes) on European goods imported into Egypt. At the same time, Europeans charged import tariffs on Egyptian goods coming into their economies. These policies raised the price of Egyptian goods and lowered the price of European goods.

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5.6G: The Governments Role in Industrialization – Thothios

5.6G: The Governments Role in Industrialization - Thothios

  • Author: thothios.com

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  • Sumary: State-led Industrialization Some non-colonized governments led programs to industrialize their societies using government money and planning. The goal was to prevent their domination by the industr…

  • Matching Result: State-led Industrialization Some non-colonized governments led programs to industrialize their societies using government money and planning.

  • Intro: 5.6G: The Governments Role in Industrialization State-led Industrialization Fearing conquest by stronger nations, some governments pushed their societies into industrialization. These governments planned out and led the industrialization process. Some non-colonized governments led programs to industrialize their societies using government money and planning. The goal was to prevent their domination…
  • Source: https://thothios.com/c-1750-to-1900/unit-5-revolutions/5-6g-the-governments-role-in-industrialization/

READ: Responses to Industrialization (article) – Khan Academy

READ: Responses to Industrialization (article) - Khan Academy

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  • Sumary: Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.

  • Matching Result: The Industrial Revolution led to rapid changes in people’s living and working conditions. In response to poor working conditions, labor movements organized …

  • Intro: READ: Responses to Industrialization (article) | Khan Academy If you’re seeing this message, it means we’re having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you’re behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.
  • Source: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/whp-origins/era-6-the-long-nineteenth-century-1750-ce-to-1914-ce/64-transformation-of-labor-betaa/a/read-responses-to-industrialization-beta

The Industrial Revolution, Politics and Public Policy

The Industrial Revolution, Politics and Public Policy

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  • Matching Result: Its progenitor: technology. The innovations that kickstarted the Industrial Revolution fostered modern democracy and led to the foundation of …

  • Intro: The Industrial Revolution, Politics and Public Policy The Industrial Revolution, Politics and Public Policy Benedict Macon-Cooney Technology Policy Paper Posted on: 16th December 2019 Benedict Macon-Cooney Deputy Executive Director, Technology and Public Policy Executive Summary Modernity, as we currently understand it, was conceived in England in the mid-eighteenth century. Its…
  • Source: https://institute.global/policy/industrial-revolution-politics-and-public-policy

Government Regulation of Workers' Safety and Health, 1877 …

Government Regulation of Workers' Safety and Health, 1877 ...

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  • Sumary: By Judson MacLaury “The social battles which men have fought … mark eras in social conditions …. Among these social contests may be classed the efforts of humane men to correct so-called factory evils.”¹

  • Matching Result: During the era of industrialization in America, between the Civil War and World War I, dangerous and unhealthy working conditions and frequent serious …

  • Intro: Government Regulation of Workers’ Safety and Health, 1877-1917 By Judson MacLaury “The social battles which men have fought … mark eras in social conditions …. Among these social contests may be classed the efforts of humane men to correct so-called factory evils.”¹ During the era of industrialization in America, between…
  • Source: https://www.dol.gov/general/aboutdol/history/mono-regsafeintrotoc

Frequently Asked Questions About how did industrialization increase the role of the national government

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how did industrialization increase the role of the national government, then this section may help you solve it.

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What role does the Tenth Amendment play?

The 10th Amendment states “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Although these clear limits to federal power are stated quite plainly in the Constitution, they are not always enforced

What authorities possesses the federal government?

The authority to levy taxes, regulate commerce, establish a uniform law of naturalization, establish federal courts (subordinate to the Supreme Court), establish and maintain a military, and declare war are just a few of the enumerated powers.

What distinguishes enumerated powers from implied powers?

The enumerated powers are those that the Constitution expressly grants to Congress. The implied powers allow the federal government to carry out the tasks listed in the enumerated powers.

Where are the Constitution’s listed powers?

The powers granted to the Federal government, and particularly to Congress, are known as enumerated powers and are primarily listed in b>Article I, Section 8/b> of the United States Constitution.

In simple terms, what does the 10th Amendment mean?

According to the Tenth Amendment, the federal government can only exercise those constitutionally granted powers; if a power isn’t listed, it belongs to the states or the people.

What is the 9th Amendment?

The listing of some rights in the Constitution shall not be interpreted as denying or demeaning other rights that the people may have.

What three powers does the federal government possess?

The U.S. Constitution grants Congress, the President, and the Federal courts, respectively, the authority to act as the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the federal government.

What are the four economic roles of the government?

The government (1) provides the political, social, and economic framework within which the economy functions, (2) upholds competition in the market, (3) offers public goods and services, (4) redistributes income, (5) accounts for externalities, and (6) implements specific measures to maintain economic stability.

How does a layer of cake compare to dual federalism?

In this report, Grodzins first coined the terms “layer cake federalism” and “marble cake federalism.” He used the metaphor of a layer cake to describe the system of dual federalism, the separated layers of the cake symbolizing how distinct spheres of power that the state and federal governments have not been inhabited.

How does the Necessary and Proper Clause relate to implied powers?

The term “implied powers” in the federal government of the United States refers to those powers that Congress exercises that are not expressly granted to it by the Constitution but are deemed “necessary and proper” to carry out those constitutionally granted powers.

Where in the Constitution is the federalism you cite as an example?

The relationship between the federal and state governments is defined by the 10th Amendment, which also contributes to this definition.

What organization is covered by Chapter 9 of the Constitution?

The South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC), the Commission for the Promotion and Protection of the Rights of Cultural, Religious, and Linguistic Communities (CRL Rights Commission), and the Public Protector are the institutions.

Which nation serves as a good example of federalism in unity?

Switzerland is a nation that was created by the union of several states, serving as a model for the “Coming Together” federation.

The Right to Privacy Act: What is it?

According to Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Act of 1948, which reads in part, “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home, or correspondence, nor to attack upon his honor and reputation,” the right to privacy is also recognized as a fundamental human right.

What freedoms are not protected by the Constitution?

United States Supreme Court: None of these rights are explicitly stated in the constitution, but the Supreme Court upholds them. Unenumerated (unwritten) rights include the right to travel, privacy, autonomy, dignity, and the right to have an abortion.

What number of articles does the Indian Constitution contain?

When the Constitution first went into effect on January 26, the day India celebrates as Republic Day, it had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. Since then, there have been 100 amendments, bringing the total number of articles to 448.

What is India’s policy regarding property rights?

The property right was removed from the list of fundamental rights by the 44thAmendment Act of 1978, and it is now a legal right under Article 300-A in Part XII of the Constitution. As such, it is not a legal right only granted to citizens.

Does the Constitution mention God?

In the United States, the federal constitution does not make a reference to God as such, although it uses the formula “the year of our Lord” in Article VII.

Is marriage a constitutional right?

A. Neither the Constitution of the United States nor the Constitution of any State, nor any State or Federal law, shall be interpreted to require that unmarried couples or groups be granted the status of married or the legal incidents thereof.

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