10 how did science technology and big business promote industrial growth Ideas

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l Revolution and Technology | National Geographic Society

It has been said that the Industrial Revolution was the most profound revolution in human history, because of its sweeping impact on people’s daily lives. The term “industrial revolution” is a succinct catchphrase to describe a historical period, starting in 18th-century Great Britain, where the pace of change appeared to speed up. This acceleration in the processes of technical innovation brought about an array of new tools and machines. It also involved more subtle practical improvements in various fields affecting labor, production, and resource use. The word “technology” (which derives from the Greek word techne, meaning art or craft) encompasses both of these dimensions of innovation.

The technological revolution, and that sense of ever-quickening change, began much earlier than the 18th century and has continued all the way to the present day. Perhaps what was most unique about the Industrial Revolution was its merger of technology with industry. Key inventions and innovations served to shape virtually every existing sector of human activity along industrial lines, while also creating many new industries. The following are some key examples of the forces driving change.

Agriculture

Western European farming methods had been improving gradually over the centuries. Several factors came together in 18th-century Britain to bring about a substantial increase in agricultural productivity. These included new types of equipment, such as the seed drill developed by Jethro Tull around 1701. Progress was also made in crop rotation and land use, soil health, development of new crop varieties, and animal husbandry. The result was a sustained increase in yields, capable of feeding a rapidly growing population with improved nutrition. The combination of factors also brought about a shift toward large-scale commercial farming, a trend that continued into the 19th century and later. Poorer peasants had a harder time making ends meet through traditional subsistence farming. The enclosure movement, which converted common-use pasture land into private property, contributed to this trend toward market-oriented agriculture. A great many rural workers and families were forced by circumstance to migrate to the cities to become industrial laborers.

Energy

Deforestation in England had led to a shortage of wood for lumber and fuel starting in the 16th century. The country’s transition to coal as a principal energy source was more or less complete by the end of the 17th century. The mining and distribution of coal set in motion some of the dynamics that led to Britain’s industrialization. The coal-fired steam engine was in many respects the decisive technology of the Industrial Revolution.

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Steam power was first applied to pump water out of coal mines. For centuries, windmills had been employed in the Netherlands for the roughly similar operation of draining low-lying flood plains. Wind was, and is, a readily available and renewable energy source, but its irregularity was considered a drawback. Water power was a more popular energy source for grinding grain and other types of mill work in most of preindustrial Europe. By the last quarter of the 18th century, however, thanks to the work of the Scottish engineer James Watt and his business partner Matthew Boulton, steam engines achieved a high level of efficiency and versatility in their design. They swiftly became the standard power supply for British, and, later, European industry. The steam engine turned the wheels of mechanized factory production. Its emergence freed manufacturers from the need to locate their factories on or near sources of water power. Large enterprises began to concentrate in rapidly growing industrial cities.

Metallurgy

In this time-honored craft, Britain’s wood shortage necessitated a switch from wood charcoal to coke, a coal product, in the smelting process. The substitute fuel eventually proved highly beneficial for iron production. Experimentation led to some other advances in metallurgical methods during the 18th century. For example, a certain type of furnace that separated the coal and kept it from contaminating the metal, and a process of “puddling” or stirring the molten iron, both made it possible to produce larger amounts of wrought iron. Wrought iron is more malleable than cast iron and therefore more suitable for fabricating machinery and other heavy industrial applications.

Textiles

The production of fabrics, especially cotton, was fundamental to Britain’s economic development between 1750 and 1850. Those are the years historians commonly use to bracket the Industrial Revolution. In this period, the organization of cotton production shifted from a small-scale cottage industry, in which rural families performed spinning and weaving tasks in their homes, to a large, mechanized, factory-based industry. The boom in productivity began with a few technical devices, including the spinning jenny, spinning mule, and power loom. First human, then water, and finally steam power were applied to operate power looms, carding machines, and other specialized equipment. Another well-known innovation was the cotton gin, invented in the United States in 1793. This device spurred an increase in cotton cultivation and export from U.S. slave states, a key British supplier.

Chemicals

This industry arose partly in response to the demand for improved bleaching solutions for cotton and other manufactured textiles. Other chemical research was motivated by the quest for artificial dyes, explosives, solvents, fertilizers, and medicines, including pharmaceuticals. In the second half of the 19th century, Germany became the world’s leader in industrial chemistry.

Transportation

Concurrent with the increased output of agricultural produce and manufactured goods arose the need for more efficient means of delivering these products to market. The first efforts toward this end in Europe involved constructing improved overland roads. Canals were dug in both Europe and North America to create maritime corridors between existing waterways. Steam engines were recognized as useful in locomotion, resulting in the emergence of the steamboat in the early 19th century. High-pressure steam engines also powered railroad locomotives, which operated in Britain after 1825. Railways spread rapidly across Europe and North America, extending to Asia in the latter half of the 19th century. Railroads became one of the world’s leading industries as they expanded the frontiers of industrial society.

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Industrial Revolution and Technology

Industrial Revolution and Technology

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  • Sumary: Whether it was mechanical inventions or new ways of doing old things, innovations powered the Industrial Revolution.

  • Matching Result: It has been said that the Industrial Revolution was the most profound … Large enterprises began to concentrate in rapidly growing …

  • Intro: Industrial Revolution and Technology | National Geographic SocietyIt has been said that the Industrial Revolution was the most profound revolution in human history, because of its sweeping impact on people’s daily lives. The term “industrial revolution” is a succinct catchphrase to describe a historical period, starting in 18th-century Great Britain,…
  • Source: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/article/industrial-revolution-and-technology/

From Invention to Industrial Growth | US History II (OS …

From Invention to Industrial Growth | US History II (OS ...

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  • Sumary: By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Matching Result: The exploitation of these new technologies provided opportunities for tremendous growth, and business entrepreneurs with financial backing and the right mix …

  • Intro: From Invention to Industrial Growth Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain how the inventions of the late nineteenth century contributed directly to industrial growth in America Identify the contributions of Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, and J. P. Morgan to the new industrial…
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Science and the Industrial Revolution | Britannica

Science and the Industrial Revolution | Britannica

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  • Sumary: It has long been a commonsensical notion that the rise of modern science and the Industrial Revolution were closely connected. It is difficult to show any direct effect of scientific discoveries upon the rise of the textile or even…

  • Matching Result: What science offered in the 18th century was the hope that careful observation and experimentation might improve industrial production significantly. In some …

  • Intro: history of science – Science and the Industrial Revolution Entertainment & Pop Culture Geography & Travel Health & Medicine Lifestyles & Social Issues Literature Philosophy & Religion Politics, Law & Government Science Sports & Recreation Technology Visual Arts World History On This Day in History Quizzes Podcasts Dictionary Biographies Summaries…
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history of technology – The Industrial Revolution (1750–1900)

history of technology - The Industrial Revolution (1750–1900)

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  • Sumary: The term Industrial Revolution, like similar historical concepts, is more convenient than precise. It is convenient because history requires division into periods for purposes of understanding and instruction and because there were sufficient innovations at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries to justify the choice of this…

  • Matching Result: An outstanding feature of the Industrial Revolution has been the advance in power technology. At the beginning of this period, the major sources of power …

  • Intro: history of technology – The Industrial Revolution (1750–1900) The term Industrial Revolution, like similar historical concepts, is more convenient than precise. It is convenient because history requires division into periods for purposes of understanding and instruction and because there were sufficient innovations at the turn of the 18th and 19th…
  • Source: https://www.britannica.com/technology/history-of-technology/The-Industrial-Revolution-1750-1900

The Industrial Revolution and STS – Science, Technology …

The Industrial Revolution and STS – Science, Technology ...

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  • Sumary: Industrial Revolution (1800’s-1940’s)

  • Matching Result: by C Michael · 2020 — It led to the invention of industrial machines in production, it led to a new, safer way to do mining, and it fostered innovation in healthcare with the …

  • Intro: The Industrial Revolution and STS – Science, Technology, & Society: A Student-Led Exploration Industrial Revolution (1800’s-1940’s) 23 Cassia Michael; Madysun Green; Gracie Travis; Robert Ayers; Amelia Godolphin; Catherine Denaux; Matt Erickson; and Anthony Hernandez Introduction The Industrial Revolution occurred from the 1880s to the mid-1940s, and it was a period…
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Inventions and Technology for Kids – Industrial Revolution

Inventions and Technology for Kids - Industrial Revolution

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  • Sumary: Kids learn about the inventions and technology from the Industrial Revolution including steam power, textile machines, locomotives, steamboat, the telegraph, and interesting facts. Educational article for students, schools, and teachers.

  • Matching Result: This allowed factories to be located anywhere. Throughout the 1800s steam engines grew bigger and more powerful. They were used to not only power factories, but …

  • Intro: Inventions and Technology for Kids Industrial Revolution History >> Industrial Revolution New inventions and technologies played an important role in the Industrial Revolution. They changed the way things were powered, how goods were manufactured, how people communicated, and the way goods were transported. These new developments allowed the industrial revolution…
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Industrial Revolution: Definition, Inventions & Dates – HISTORY

Industrial Revolution: Definition, Inventions & Dates - HISTORY

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  • Sumary: The Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, a time of great growth in technologies and inventions, transformed rural societies into industrialized, urban ones.

  • Matching Result: The Industrial Revolution was a period of scientific and technological development in the 18th century that transformed largely rural, …

  • Intro: Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution was a period of scientific and technological development in the 18th century that transformed largely rural, agrarian societies—especially in Europe and North America—into industrialized, urban ones. Goods that had once been painstakingly crafted by hand started to be produced in mass quantities by machines in factories,…
  • Source: https://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution/industrial-revolution

Frequently Asked Questions About how did science technology and big business promote industrial growth

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how did science technology and big business promote industrial growth, then this section may help you solve it.

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How did technology and science advance the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution was significantly influenced by new discoveries and technologies that altered how things were powered, goods were manufactured, people communicated, and how goods were transported.

How did scientific developments affect daily life during the Industrial Revolution?

Improvements in food safety and medical procedures were just two of the ways that science had an impact on life during the Industrial Revolution. Science also altered the general public’s basic worldview and caused them to see things differently.

What led to the rise of big business during the Industrial Revolution?

When larger factories that centralized production under one roof were powered by new energy sources like the steam engine, coal, and electricity in the late nineteenth century, businesses were able to mass produce standardized goods more quickly and effectively.

What element supported the expansion of industry in the late nineteenth century?

The rise of U.S. industrialization in the late 1800s was influenced by a number of factors, including abundant natural resources (coal, iron, and oil); abundant labor supply; railroads; labor-saving technological advancements (new patents); and pro-business government policies.

What part do science and technology play in business and the overall economy of a nation?

The ability to create, distribute, and exploit knowledge has emerged as a major source of competitive advantage, wealth creation, and improvements in the quality of life. Scientific advancements and technological change are significant drivers of recent economic performance.

How did the Industrial Revolution’s use of new technology impact the economy?

America became one of the world’s most economically powerful nations as a result of the use of railroads by people to move goods and expand their businesses across the nation.

What role does science play in business?

The most widely acknowledged contribution of universities to innovating companies is the provision of scientific knowledge, which is important for firms’ innovation activities because it provides new knowledge, creates knowledge in collaboration with firms, and stimulates innovation projects.

What in science and technology is the Industrial Revolution?

The Industrial Revolution, whose beginning and conclusion are hotly contested by academics but generally covered the years from roughly 1760 to 1840, was the shift from handcrafting goods to the use of machines.

Which factor is the primary driver of industrial growth?

Growth industries are often new or pioneer industries that did not previously exist. Their growth is due to demand for new products or services offered by companies in the field. Growth industries are that sector of an economy that experiences a higher-than-average growth rate as compared to other sectors.

What one factor contributed to the expansion of industries?

The United States had vast natural resources, including timber, coal, iron, and copper, which meant that American businesses could obtain resources affordably and did not have to import them from other countries. This was one reason for the nation’s industrial success.

What caused the industrial revolution?

The division of labor and specialization that resulted from technological advancements like the use of iron and steel, new energy sources like coal and steam, and the factory system increased efficiency.

What factors have fueled the expansion of industry?

Agriculture and handicrafts-based economies were replaced by economies based on large-scale industry, mechanized manufacturing, and the factory system during the Industrial Revolution, which also improved productivity and efficiency in existing industries.

What fosters the expansion of the economy and industry?

Trade openness boosts foreign direct investment (FDI), global market integration, technological advancement, and countries’ productive capacity. Industrialization contributes to economic growth by improving productive capacity, job creation, innovation, and efficient resource use.

What contributed to the acceleration of industrial growth?

The development of capitalism as an economic theory, which aided wealthy people in starting their own businesses, was the primary cause, and the spread of European imperialism throughout the world was the secondary primary cause.

When did the Industrial Revolution begin?

Steam engines: Despite the importance of qualifying older forms of power, steam became the defining and pervasive energy of the British Industrial Revolution.

What breakthroughs aided the expansion of large industries and corporations?

As massive oil, railroad, and steel monopolies were built, and as new developments in electricity, mechanization, and communication led to industrial production never before seen in the modern world, millions of immigrants from around the world flooded the country in search of employment and a better life.

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