10 how did the transatlantic slave trade benefit european plantation owners in the west indies? Ideas

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-Atlantic Slave Trade · African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative

The trans-Atlantic slave trade was the largest long-distance forced movement of people in recorded history. From the sixteenth to the late nineteenth centuries, over twelve million (some estimates run as high as fifteen million) African men, women, and children were enslaved, transported to the Americas, and bought and sold primarily by European and Euro-American slaveholders as chattel property used for their labor and skills.

The trans-Atlantic slave trade occurred within a broader system of trade between West and Central Africa, Western Europe, and North and South America. In African ports, European traders exchanged metals, cloth, beads, guns, and ammunition for captive Africans brought to the coast from the African interior, primarily by African traders. Many captives died just during the long overland journeys from the interior to the coast. European traders then held the enslaved Africans who survived in fortified slave castles such as Elmina in the central region (now Ghana), Goree Island (now in present day Senegal), and Bunce Island (now in present day Sierra Leone), before forcing them into ships for the Middle Passage across the Atlantic Ocean.

Harper’s Weekly, June 2, 1860, courtesy of the Library of Congress.
” data-fancybox=”images”>The slave deck of the 'WildfireHarper’s Weekly, June 2, 1860, courtesy of the Library of Congress.
” src=”http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/files/fullsize/895e4a0cf6eb60f92545f26362c2874c.jpg” title=”The slave deck of the ‘Wildfire” ship brought into Key West on April 30, 1860, illustration, Harper’s Weekly, June 2, 1860, courtesy of the Library of Congress.
“>

Scholars estimate that from ten to nineteen percent of the millions of Africans forced into the Middle Passage across the Atlantic died due to rough conditions on slave ships. Those who arrived at various ports in the Americas were then sold in public auctions or smaller trading venues to plantation owners, merchants, small farmers, prosperous tradesmen, and other slave traders. These traders could then transport slaves many miles further to sell on other Caribbean islands or into the North or South American interior. Predominantly European slaveholders purchased enslaved Africans to provide labor that included domestic service and artisanal trades. The majority, however, provided agricultural labor and skills to produce plantation cash crops for national and international markets. Slaveholders used profits from these exports to expand their landholdings and purchase more enslaved Africans, perpetuating the trans-Atlantic slave trade cycle for centuries, until various European countries and new American nations officially ceased their participation in the trade in the nineteenth century (though illegal trans-Atlantic slave trading continued even after national and colonial governments issued legal bans).

Large Canoe and Village Scene, possibly Liberia, mid-19th century, courtesy of University of Virginia Library, Special Collections.

Large Canoe and Village Scene, possibly Liberia, mid-19th century, courtesy of University of Virginia Special Collections Library. Example of shallow water vessels used in West and Central Africa to counter European attacks and thwart early attempts at mainland colonization.

ESTABLISHING THE TRADE

In the fifteenth century, Portugal became the first European nation to take significant part in African slave trading. The Portuguese primarily acquired slaves for labor on Atlantic African island plantations, and later for plantations in Brazil and the Caribbean, though they also sent a small number to Europe. Initially, Portuguese explorers attempted to acquire African labor through direct raids along the coast, but they found that these attacks were costly and often ineffective against West and Central African military strategies.

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For example, in 1444, Portuguese marauders arrived in Senegal ready to assault and capture Africans using armor, swords, and deep-sea vessels. But the Portuguese discovered that the Senegalese out-maneuvered their ships using light, shallow water vessels better suited to the estuaries of the Senegalese coast. In addition, the Senegalese fought with poison arrows that slipped through their armor and decimated the Portuguese soldiers. Subsequently, Portuguese traders generally abandoned direct combat and established commercial relations with West and Central African leaders, who agreed to sell slaves taken from various African wars or domestic trading, as well as gold and other commodities, in exchange for European and North African goods.

Over time, the Portuguese developed additional slave trade partnerships with African leaders along the West and Central African coast and claimed a monopoly over these relationships, which initially limited access to the trade for other western European competitors. Despite Portuguese claims, African leaders enforced their own local laws and customs in negotiating trade relations. Many welcomed additional trade with Europeans from other nations.

Manikongo (leaders of Kongo) receiving Portugeuse, ca. pre-1840.

Manikongo (leaders of Kongo) receiving the Portugeuse, ca. pre-1840. The Portuguese developed a trading relationship with the Kingdom of Kongo, which existed from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries in what is now Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Civil War within Kongo during the trans-Atlantic slave trade would lead to many of its subjects becoming captives traded to the Portugeuse.

When Portuguese, and later their European competitors, found that peaceful commercial relations alone did not generate enough enslaved Africans to fill the growing demands of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, they formed military alliances with certain African groups against their enemies. This encouraged more extensive warfare to produce captives for trading. While European-backed Africans had their own political or economic reasons for fighting with other African enemies, the end result for Europeans traders in these military alliances was greater access to enslaved war captives. To a lesser extent, Europeans also pursued African colonization to secure access to slaves and other goods. For example, the Portuguese colonized portions of Angola in 1571 with the help of military alliances from Kongo, but were pushed out in 1591 by their former allies. Throughout this early period, African leaders and European competitors ultimately prevented these attempts at African colonization from becoming as extensive as in the Americas.

The Portuguese dominated the early trans-Atlantic slave trade on the African coast in the sixteenth century. As a result, other European nations first gained access to enslaved Africans through privateering during wars with the Portuguese,rather than through direct trade. When English, Dutch, or French privateers captured Portuguese ships during Atlantic maritime conflicts, they often found enslaved Africans on these ships, as well as Atlantic trade goods, and they sent these captives to work in their own colonies.

In this way, privateering generated a market interest in the trans-Atlantic slave trade across European colonies in the Americas. After Portugal temporarily united with Spain in 1580, the Spanish broke up the Portuguese slave trade monopoly by offering direct slave trading contracts to other European merchants. Known as the asiento system, the Dutch took advantage of these contracts to compete with the Portuguese and Spanish for direct access to African slave trading, and the British and French eventually followed. By the eighteenth century, when the trans-Atlantic slave trade reached its trafficking peak, the British (followed by the French and Portuguese) had become the largest carriers of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic. The overwhelming majority of enslaved Africans went to plantations in Brazil and the Caribbean, and a smaller percentage went to North America and other parts of South and Central America.

Atlas Blaeu van der Hem, 1665-1668.” data-fancybox=”images”>Elimina Castle, or St. George Castle, Gold Coast (present day Ghana), <em>Atlas Blaeu van der Hem</em>, 1665-1668.” src=”http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/files/fullsize/379782226d47e270222a7a35d6fda04d.jpg” title=”Elimina Castle, or St. George Castle, Gold Coast (present day Ghana), <em>Atlas Blaeu van der Hem</em>, 1665-1668.”></p>
<p>Elimina Castle, or St. George Castle, Gold Coast (present day Ghana), from the <em>Atlas Blaeu van der Hem</em>, 1665-1668. The Portuguese established Elmina on the Gold Coast as a trading settlement in 1482. It eventually became a major slave trading post in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The Dutch seized the fortress from the Portugeuse in 1637.</p>
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The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade · African Passages …

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade · African Passages ...

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  • Sumary: The trans-Atlantic slave trade was the largest long-distance forced movement of people in recorded history. From the sixteenth to the late nineteenth centuries, over twelve million (some estimates run as high as fifteen million) African men, women, and children were enslaved, transported to the Americas, and bought and sold…

  • Matching Result: Predominantly European slaveholders purchased enslaved Africans to provide labor that included domestic service and artisanal trades.

  • Intro: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade · African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations · Lowcountry Digital History Initiative The trans-Atlantic slave trade was the largest long-distance forced movement of people in recorded history. From the sixteenth to the late nineteenth centuries, over twelve million (some estimates run as high as fifteen million) African men, women,…
  • Source: https://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/africanpassageslowcountryadapt/introductionatlanticworld/trans_atlantic_slave_trade

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The history of the transatlantic slave trade

The history of the transatlantic slave trade

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  • Sumary: Find out about the slave trade, resistance and eventual abolition at the Atlantic gallery.

  • Matching Result: Ivory, gold and other trade resources attracted Europeans to West Africa. As demand for cheap labour to work on plantations in the Americas grew, people …

  • Intro: The history of the transatlantic slave trade Find out about the slave trade, resistance and eventual abolition at the Atlantic gallery. Africa and Enslavement Ivory, gold and other trade resources attracted Europeans to West Africa. As demand for cheap labour to work on plantations in the Americas grew, people enslaved…
  • Source: https://www.rmg.co.uk/stories/topics/history-transatlantic-slave-trade

READ: The Transatlantic Slave Trade (article) – Khan Academy

READ: The Transatlantic Slave Trade (article) - Khan Academy

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  • Sumary: Learn for free about math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, finance, history, and more. Khan Academy is a nonprofit with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere.

  • Matching Result: The shift to plantation agriculture in Brazil and the Caribbean meant that sugar could now be produced and exported on a large scale. This created a demand for …

  • Intro: READ: The Transatlantic Slave Trade (article) | Khan Academy If you’re seeing this message, it means we’re having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you’re behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked.
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How Did The Transatlantic Slave Trade Benefit European …

How Did The Transatlantic Slave Trade Benefit European ...

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  • Sumary: How did the transatlantic slave trade benefit European plantation owners in the West Indies quizlet? How did the transatlantic slave trade benefit European plantation owners … Read more

  • Matching Result: How did the transatlantic slave trade benefit European plantation owners in the West Indies? It allowed them to grow and produce goods more …

  • Intro: How Did The Transatlantic Slave Trade Benefit European Plantation Owners In The West Indies? – Micro B Life How did the transatlantic slave trade benefit European plantation owners in the West Indies? It allowed them to grow and produce goods more cheaply. How did the transatlantic slave trade benefit Europe?…
  • Source: https://www.microblife.in/how-did-the-transatlantic-slave-trade-benefit-european-plantation-owners-in-the-west-indies/

Transatlantic Slave Trade | Slavery and Remembrance

Transatlantic Slave Trade | Slavery and Remembrance

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  • Sumary: Through sites and objects from across the globe, Slavery and Remembrance aims to broaden our understandings of a shared and painful past, the ways in which we collectively remember and…

  • Matching Result: Enslaved Africans, their often violent capture and enslavement out of sight of the European general public, were exchanged for iron bars and textiles, luxury …

  • Intro: Transatlantic Slave Trade | Slavery and Remembrance Drummers, trumpeters, and a procession of soldiers celebrate the coronation of the King of Whydah, who sits front and center in the palace courtyard. Invited guests from European trading companies (pictured on the right) witness the ceremony in this engraving by Marchais. Their…
  • Source: https://slaveryandremembrance.org/articles/article/?id=A0002

Grade 7 – Term 2: The Transatlantic slave trade

Grade 7 - Term 2: The Transatlantic slave trade

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  • Matching Result: Crops grown on these plantations such as tobacco, rice, sugar cane and cotton were labour intensive. Planters therefore began to purchase slaves …

  • Intro: Grade 7 – Term 2: The Transatlantic slave tradeCONTENT West Africa before the European slave trade A map depicting the three most well-known West African Kingdoms. Image source The peoples of West Africa had a rich and varied history and culture long before European slaver traders arrived. They had a…
  • Source: https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/grade-7-term-2-transatlantic-slave-trade

Atlantic Slave Trade (The) – EHNE

Atlantic Slave Trade (The) - EHNE

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  • Sumary: The expansion of Europe after 1500 could not have succeeded without slaves as Europeans refused to migrate in sufficient numbers to the tropics, where their death rate was extremely high. This is why the European colonizers in Africa and Asia bought local slaves. In the tropical parts of the…

  • Matching Result: No other groups in Europe could be forced to move to the West Indies, and thus the colonists and especially the first sugar cane planters in the English …

  • Intro: Atlantic Slave Trade (The) The expansion of Europe after 1500 could not have succeeded without slaves as Europeans refused to migrate in sufficient numbers to the tropics, where their death rate was extremely high. This is why the European colonizers in Africa and Asia bought local slaves. In the tropical…
  • Source: https://ehne.fr/en/encyclopedia/themes/europe-europeans-and-world/europe-and-atlantic-slave-trade/atlantic-slave-trade

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Frequently Asked Questions About how did the transatlantic slave trade benefit european plantation owners in the west indies?

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how did the transatlantic slave trade benefit european plantation owners in the west indies?, then this section may help you solve it.

How did European plantations benefit from the transatlantic slave trade?

The majority, however, b>provided agricultural labor and skills to produce plantation cash crops for national and international markets/b>. Historically, European slaveholders bought enslaved Africans to work in domestic service and artisanal trades.

The transatlantic slave trade benefited who?

Slave owners in the Lower South made money because the people they bought were made to work in the incredibly profitable cotton and sugar fields, whereas slave owners in the Upper South made money because they received cash for the people they sold.

How did the slave trade benefit the Caribbean?

More than four million Africans were transported to the Caribbean by slave traders over the course of the slave trade, and as a result, the region’s multiracial societies, many of which have hybrid African-European-indigenous cultural traits, have grown.

What was the transatlantic slave trade’s main impact?

Economic incentives for warlords and tribes to participate in the slave trade promoted an environment of lawlessness and violence, and the slave trade had devastating effects on Africa. Depopulation and a persistent fear of captivity made economic and agricultural development virtually impossible throughout much of western Africa.

What were the slave trade’s three effects?

The data show that the effects of the slave trades are through ethnic fragmentation, weakened states, and a decline in the caliber of domestic institutions, which is consistent with the historical evidence.

Which three elements made up the transatlantic slave trade?

The colonists in the Americas also made direct slaving voyages to Africa, which did not follow the triangular route, combining European capital, African labour, and American land and resources to supply a European market.

Who profited from the African slave trade?

According to European colonial officials, the abundant land they had discovered in the Americas was useless without enough labor to exploit it, so most of the European colonial economies in the Americas from the 16th through the 19th century were dependent on enslaved African labor.

The significance of transatlantic slavery

The reason for this maritime movement was to obtain labor as the native population of the New World had declined rapidly due to its lack of immunity against imported pathogens, making the Atlantic slave trade from Africa to the New World likely the largest maritime migration in history.

Why were slaves needed in the West Indies?

In order to fill the growing labor shortage caused by the expansion of sugar “plantations” in the Caribbean, planters increasingly turned to purchasing men, women, and children who had been imported into Africa as slaves.

Why did Africans play such a crucial role in the Caribbean plantations?

Those involved in the slave trade were primarily motivated by the enormous profits that could be made, both in the Caribbean and at home. Enslaved Africans were brought to the Caribbean as an abundant and inexpensive source of labor for sugar plantations.

What benefits does the slave trade offer?

According to Eltis, the Atlantic economy’s growth increased demand for commodities that could be produced at a low cost by slaves, such as sugar, coffee, tobacco, and cotton textiles, making slavery more valuable to the region’s economy.

Why was the slave trade important? What was it?

Second, the profits made by Americans and Europeans from the slave trade and slavery enabled the development of economic and political growth in important regions of the Americas and Europe. First, it was a trade between European and African slavers who exploited millions of African men, women, and children.

What was a result of the slave trade?

As more slaves were supplied to European colonies in the Americas, many African communities simply disintegrated as a result of the demand for slavery in Europe and the availability of the slaves from traders on Africa’s coasts.

How did Africans benefit from the Atlantic Slave Trade?

The African aristocracy and middlemen who facilitated the capture and sale of Africans and made significant profits from the trade also contributed to the formation of semi-feudal classes in Africa that worked with Europeans to sanction the oppression of their own people.

What impact did the slave trade have on African society?

The most common method by which slaves were taken was through villages or states raiding one another (Northrup 1978; Lovejoy 1994), which had particularly detrimental consequences, including social and ethnic fragmentation, political instability and a weakening of states, and the corruption of judicial institutions.

How did the slave trade benefit Europe?

The Atlantic slave trade fueled the development of numerous provisioning and redistribution markets and allowed for the accumulation of substantial wealth that was used to finance a wide range of endeavors and consumption patterns.

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