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ferences Between Metamorphic Rocks and Igneous Rocks
The Rock Cycle (Credit: abrighton.com)
Metamorphic rocks: arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means “change in form”. The original rock may be a sedimentary rock, an igneous rock or another older metamorphic rock.
Igneous rocks: began as magma (molten rock) which cooled and crystallized into minerals. This magma can be derived from partial melts of existing rocks in either a planet’s mantle or crust.
2-How they form
Metamorphic rocks: The original rock (protolith) is subjected to heat (temperatures greater than 150 to 200 °C) and pressure (1500 bars), causing profound physical and/or chemical change. The temperatures were not enough to melt the rock, otherwise, an igneous rock would have formed.
Igneous rock: is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava. Igneous rock may form with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks.
|The tectonic sitting of the metamorphic rock|
Metamorphic rocks: result from the forces active during plate tectonic processes. The collision of plates, subduction, and the sliding of plates along transform faults create differential stress, friction, shearing, compressive stress, folding, faulting, and increased heat flow. The tectonic forces deform and break the rock, creating openings, cracks, faults, breccias, and zones of weakness along which magmas can rise. Generally speaking, the greater the tectonic forces, the higher the pressures and temperatures affecting a rock mass and the greater the amount of resulting structural deformation and metamorphism.
Igneous rocks: form from magmas, and most magmas are associated with plate tectonics. Mafic (basaltic) and ultramafic magmas form along the divergent midoceanic ridges and are major components of new oceanic crust. More felsic magmas, such as andesites and rhyolites, are associated with the edges of continental crust at subduction zones along converging plate boundaries. Whether a magma is intermediate or felsic may depend on the relative amounts of oceanic crust and continental crust in the subduction zone that melt to form the magma.
Metamorphic index minerals form under specific temperature and pressure conditions.
Metamorphic minerals are those that form only at the high temperatures and pressures associated with the process of metamorphism. These minerals, known as index minerals, include sillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, andalusite, and some garnet.
Other minerals, such as olivines, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, feldspars, and quartz, may be found in metamorphic rocks, but are not necessarily the result of the process of metamorphism. These minerals formed during the crystallization of igneous rocks.
|Minerals contents of the igneous rocks|
Igneous rock: Felsic Igneous rock, highest content of silicon, with predominance of quartz, alkali feldspar and/or feldspathoids: the felsic minerals; these rocks (e.g., granite, rhyolite) are usually light coloured, and have low density. While mafic Igneous rock, lesser content of silicon relative to felsic rocks, with predominance of mafic minerals pyroxenes, olivines and calcic plagioclase; these rocks (example, basalt, gabbro) are usually dark coloured, and have a higher density than felsic rocks.ultramafic rock, lowest content of silicon, with more than 90% of mafic minerals.
|This chart depicts metamorphic rock types, their texturture, grain size, and characteristics.|
Metamorphic rock is classified by texture and composition. The texture of a metamorphic rock can be either foliated and appear layered or banded, or non-foliated and appear uniform in texture without banding. Foliated rocks contain many different kinds of minerals, but non-foliated rocks contain only one main mineral, which contributes to their more uniform appearance.
Classification of Igneous Rocks Take a look and see how igneous rocks are classified according to dominant minerals, accessory minerals, color, and texture.
Igneous rocks are classified according to mode of occurrence, texture, mineralogy, chemical composition, and the geometry of the igneous body.
|Texture of the metamorphic rock|
The five basic metamorphic textures with typical rock types are slaty (includes slate and phyllite; the foliation is called “slaty cleavage”), schistose (includes schist; the foliation is called “schistosity”), gneissose (gneiss; the foliation is called “gneissosity”), granoblastic (includes granulite, some marbles and quartzite), and hornfelsic (includes hornfels and skarn).
|Texture of the igneous rock|
Igneous textures include the rock textures occurring in igneous rocks. Igneous textures are used by geologists in determining the mode of origin igneous rocks and are used in rock classification. There are six main types of textures; phaneritic, aphanitic, porphyritic, glassy, pyroclastic and pegmatitic.
|Granite and Gneiss credit: Geology Cafe|
Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. It is often foliated (composed of layers of sheet-like planar structures). The foliations are characterized by alternating darker and lighter colored bands, called “gneissic banding”.
Granite is the most famous igneous rocks. Which is a type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture. Granites can be predominantly white, pink, or gray in color, depending on their mineralogy. The word “granite” comes from the Latin granum, a grain, in reference to the coarse-grained structure of such a holocrystalline rock. By definition, granite is an igneous rock with at least 20% quartz and up to 65% alkali feldspar by volume.
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Frequently Asked Questions About how do metamorphic rocks compare to other rock types
If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic how do metamorphic rocks compare to other rock types, then this section may help you solve it.
What distinguishes igneous and metamorphic rocks?
Sedimentary rocks are created from layers of sand, silt, dead plants, and animal skeletons. Igneous rocks are created from melted rock deep inside the Earth. Metamorphic rocks are created from other rocks that are altered by heat and pressure underground.
What traits do the rocks that have undergone metamorphism share?
They are crystalline and frequently have a “squashed” (foliated or banded) texture. Metamorphic rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks, but have been altered (metamorphosed) as a result of intense heat and/or pressure within the Earth’s crust.
What distinguishes a metamorphic rock with foliation from one without?
Slate and gneiss are examples of foliated metamorphic rocks that have bands or visible layers in the rock pattern, which are produced by direct pressure and heat; non-foliated metamorphic rocks do not.
How do rocks compare?
All igneous rocks began as magma (molten rock), which cooled and crystallized into minerals. Mineral composition and texture (appearance) are the two fundamental characteristics that geologists use to categorize rocks.
Igneous rock is more durable than metamorphic rock.
Metamorphic rocks are the roots of many mountain chains and are often as hard as or sometimes even harder than igneous rocks. They are exposed to the surface after the softer outer layers of rocks are eroded away.
What distinguishes sedimentary rocks from metamorphic ones?
Metamorphic rocks are created when pre-existing rocks are altered by heat, pressure, or reactive fluids such as hot, mineral-rich water. Sedimentary rocks are formed when particles settle out of water or air or by the precipitation of minerals from water.
What feature do all three types of rocks share?
Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks are the three main types of rocks, and each of them is created by physical processes that are a part of the rock cycle, such as melting, cooling, eroding, compacting, or deforming.
Three things to know about metamorphic rocks
The term “metamorphic” refers to a change in shape and was first used to describe sedimentary and igneous rocks, respectively. By examining the chemicals that make up metamorphic rock, the original rock type can be identified.
How are metamorphic rocks recognized?
Marble, schist, gneiss, and slate are examples of metamorphic rocks. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have undergone significant heat or pressure during their formation. One way to determine if a rock sample is metamorphic is to see if the crystals within it are arranged in bands.
What types of metamorphic rocks are there?
Non-foliated metamorphic rocks do not have aligned mineral crystals and form when pressure is uniform or very low near the surface, which is how they are generally divided into foliated and non-foliated metamorphic rocks.
What features do the three different types of rocks have in common?
=>Among these, igneous and metamorphic rocks have the following things in common: both are types of rocks, temperature plays a significant role in their formation, both are a part of the rock cycle, and they can change into other types of rocks over time.
What feature unites every type of rock?
Geologists define a rock as a naturally occurring substance made up of solid crystals of various minerals that may or may not have formed at the same time, but were bonded together by natural processes to form a solid lump.
What features of igneous and metamorphic rocks are similar and different?
The primary distinction between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks is how they are formed. Igneous rocks are created from magma or lava, while sedimentary rocks are created by the accumulation or deposition of small particles. Metamorphic rocks are created when an existing rock type is changed into a new one.
What kind of rock is most prevalent?
Basalt is the most prevalent type of rock in the Earth’s crust and is a hard, black volcanic rock.
What do igneous and metamorphic rocks have in common?
Both metamorphic and igneous rocks require heat for their formation, and the heat from the Earth’s lower layers aids in heating and, occasionally, melting the rocks.