10 how does the heliocentric model explain retrograde motion? Ideas

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it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde?

StarChild Question of the Month for June 2002

Question:

What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde?

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Answer:

Retrograde motion is an APPARENT change in the movement of the planet through the sky. It is not REAL in that the planet does not physically start moving backwards in its orbit. It just appears to do so because of the relative positions of the planet and Earth and how they are moving around the Sun.

Normally, the planets move west-to-east through the stars at night. This is referred to as prograde motion. However, peridiocally the motion changes and they move east-to-west through the stars. We call this retrograde motion. The retrograde motion continues for a short time and then the motion switches back to prograde. This seemingly strange behavior is easily understood within the context of a Sun-centered (heliocentric) solar system. The explanation for retrograde motion in a heliocentric model is that retrograde occurs roughly when a faster moving planet catches up to and passes a slower moving planet.

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How the planet Mars would appear to have both prograde then retrograde then prograde motion is shown in the diagram below. Notice that it is all due to the fact that the Earth moves faster in its orbit than does Mars. So as we catch up to that planet in its orbit and then move beyond it, the motion appears to go through the pro-retro-pro cycle.

diagram showing the orbits of Mars and Earth around the Sun with lines drawn from Earth through Mars at various orbit points which projects into a loop pattern for Mars' motion being observed in the night sky

You can experience this effect for yourself. Start out standing side by side with a friend. Have a friend walk forward slowly. Now you walk forward at a faster speed. Watch your friend and think about how they are moving relative to you. At first, they move away, then as you pass them, they APPEAR to be moving backward relative to you – even though they are still walking forward.

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What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde?

What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde?

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  • Sumary: What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde?

  • Matching Result: This video will focus on a variation of that motion known as retrograde motion. This apparent motion concerns the planet slowing in its eastward motion, …

  • Intro: What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde? StarChild Question of the Month for June 2002 Question: What does it mean for Mercury to be in retrograde? Answer: Retrograde motion is an APPARENT change in the movement of the planet through the sky. It is not REAL in…
  • Source: https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question46.html

Astronomy Lecture Number 3 – NJIT

Astronomy Lecture Number 3 - NJIT

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  • Matching Result: The heliocentric model accounts for retrograde motion as due to the simultaneous motions of the Earth and an outer planet such as Mars.

  • Intro: Astronomy Lecture Number 3   Physics 202 Intro to Astronomy:  Lecture #3 Prof. Dale E. Gary NJIT Early Models of the Universe Motions of the Planets As we said in the previous lecture, all of the planets orbit the Sun in the same plane, along with the Earth. When we…
  • Source: https://web.njit.edu/~gary/202/Lecture3.html

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2.3 Heliocentric Models – WebAssign

2.3 Heliocentric Models - WebAssign

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  • Matching Result: See Aristarchus. … Retrograde motion is a natural consequence of observing planets not from a fixed, central location but from another, moving planet: As Earth …

  • Intro: 2.3 Heliocentric Models Pre-Lecture Reading 2.3 • Astronomy Today, 8th Edition (Chaisson & McMillan) • Astronomy Today, 7th Edition (Chaisson & McMillan) • Astronomy Today, 6th Edition (Chaisson & McMillan) Video Lecture • Heliocentric Models (19:00) Supplementary Notes Basic Heliocentric Model • See Basic Heliocentric Model. Sun • Center of…
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Frequently Asked Questions About how does the heliocentric model explain retrograde motion?

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How did the heliocentric model of the universe account for the planets’ retrograde motion?

Retrograde motion was simply b>a perspective effect caused when Earth passes a slower moving outer planet that makes the planet appear to be moving backwards in relation to the background stars/b>, according to Copernicus’s much simpler, but largely accurate, heliocentric theory of the 1500s.

Try this quiz to find out how the heliocentric model explains apparent retrograde motion.

The heliocentric model explains the retrograde motion of Mars because Mars only appears to move backward as Earth passes it in its orbit around the Sun.

How does the heliocentric model account for Mars’s retrograde motion?

Answer and explanation: The heliocentric model postulates that the Earth overtakes Mars’ orbit on the inside, which would account for Mars’ apparent retrograde motion, which appears to be caused by our perspective of Mars shifting from catching up to what we passed by to looking back.

What theory accounts for retrograde motion?

In Ptolemy’s model, a planet moved in a circle on an epicycle, which moved on a deferent, producing a retrograde motion by combining two circular motions. The system could predict the positions of the planets and was in use for nearly two millennia.

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How does Copernicus’ heliocentric theory account for Mars’ retrograde motion?

The heliocentric model explains the retrograde motion of Mars by the fact that Mars only seems to move backward as Earth passes it in its orbit around the Sun.

Did Galileo use the heliocentric theory to explain retrograde motion?

With his theory, he was able to explain the complicated retrograde motions of the planets without epicycles and to work out a roughly accurate scale for the solar system, concluding that the closer a planet is to the Sun, the faster its orbital speed.

What causes motion to move backwards?

As the Earth revolves around the Sun, our perspective shifts, causing the apparent positions of objects to move from side to side in the sky with a one-year period. The retrograde motion is caused by the Earth’s own motion around the Sun.

Is the geocentric model accurate for retrograde motion?

In the Greek geocentric model, a planet actually moves backward when one of the following conditions is met: (a) Earth is about to pass the planet in its orbit around the Sun.

a segment of the YouTube video Retrograde Motion

Iframe with a src of “https://www.youtube.com/embed/1nVSzzYCAYk”

How is retrograde motion described in the present?

Astronomers refer to this as?apparent retrograde motion,? because it is an optical illusion, and the opposite of retrograde is direct or prograde motion, which is when a planet appears to move backward in its orbit, as seen from Earth.

Why do we observe retrograde motion, and what is it?

When we pass a superior planet, like Mars, which moves slower in its orbit than the Earth but appears to be moving “backward” because we are moving faster than it is, we are actually just experiencing an optical illusion known as retrograde motion.

What appears to be the planets’ apparent retrograde motion?

A: The apparent retrograde motion of planets (and other objects) on the sky is an illusion produced by the fact that objects in our solar system orbit the Sun at different distances and speeds; this is most easily pictured for superior planets, those outside of Earth’s orbit, such as Mars.

What does it mean to be in a retrograde?

This word comes from the Latin retrogradus, meaning “going backward.” You might hear retrograde used in astronomy to describe the movements of the planets. If a planet like Mercury is in retrograde, that means it appears to be moving backwards. Retrograde can also describe something that’s going from better to worse.

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