10 in a closed economy, what is the relationship between saving and investment? Ideas

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role=”button” tabindex=”0″>5:10Saving and Investment in a Closed Economy … Economics in Many Lessons … of the calculations and relationships among these concepts.YouTube · Economics in Many Lessons · Oct 14, 2021
Tutorial 2 Savings, Investment and the Interest Rate

Because the interest rate is the cost of borrowing and the return to lending in the financial market, we can better understand the role of the interest rate in the economy by thinking about the financial markets. To do this we rearrange the national income accounts identity as:

Y – C – G = I

The term Y – C – G is the output that remains after the demands of consumers and the government have been satisfied.  This can be referred to as national savings or simply savings (S).  In this form the national income account identity shows that savings equals investment.

We can distinguish between savings in the private sector and savings in the public sector through the introduction of our tax identities.  
This allows the previous identity to be rewritten as:

S = (Y – T – C) + (T – G) = I

The term (Y – T – C) is disposable income minus consumption, which is private savings.  The term (T – G) is government revenue minus government spending, which is public savings.  If government spending exceeds government revenue, the government runs a budget deficit, and public savings is negative.  National savings is the sum of both private and public savings.  This equation states that the flow into the financial markets (public and private savings) must equal the flows out of the financial markets (investment).

To see how the interest rate affects this system and brings the financial markets into equilibrium we substitute the consumption function and the investment function into the national income accounts identity.

  S = (Y – T – [C (Y – T)]) + (T – G) = I(r)

  S = Y – C(T – T) – G = I(r)

Next note that G and T are fixed by policy (as discussed previously) and Y is fixed by factors of production. The left hand side of this equation shows that national savings depends on income Y and fiscal policy G and T.  For fixed values of Y, T and G, national savings is also fixed.  The right hand side shows that investment depends on the interest rate.

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The below is an interactive graph of savings and investment.  For simplicity, we will use the previous assumption that saving is fixed (i.e. does not depend on the interest rate).  This results in a vertical savings line as regardless of the interest rate there will be no change in the quantity saved.  The investment function slopes downward as the higher the interest rate the fewer investment projects are profitable.  The diagram resembles a supply and demand diagram.  Indeed we can think of the good being demanded as loanable funds and the price being the interest rate.  Savings is the supply of loanable funds.  Investment is the demand for loanable funds.

The interest rate adjusts to bring savings and investment into balance.  The vertical line represents savings – the supply of loanable funds.  The downward sloping line represents investment – the demand for loanable funds.  The interaction of these two curves determines the equilibrium interest rate.  At the equilibrium interest rate, households’ desires to save balances firms’ desires to invest, and the quantity of loanable funds supplied equals the quantity demanded.  We can now use this framework to consider what happens when various elements of the national income accounting framework change.

We will now use our model to show how fiscal policy affects the economy.  When governments change their spending or levels of taxation, it effects the demand for the economy’s output of goods and services and alters national savings, investment and the equilibrium interest rate.  Consider the impact of an increase in Government purchases by ΔG.  The immediate impact is to increase the demand for goods and services by ΔG.  But since total output is fixed, the increase in government purchases must be met by a decrease in some other category of demand.  Because disposable income Y – T is unchanged, consumption C is unchanged.  Therefore, the increase in government purchases must be offset by a fall in investment.  To induce investment to fall, the interest rate must rise.

To grasp the impact of an increase in government expenditure we will consider the interactive graph below.  Use the filter option to show the impact of an expansion in fiscal policy.  Because an increase in government expenditure is not accompanied by an increase in taxes, the government finances additional spending through borrowing – that is reducing public savings.  With private savings unaffected, the impact of a reduction in public savings is to reduce the overall levels of national savings.  This causes a shift in the below graph.  At the initial interest rate the demand for loanable funds exceeds the supply of loanable funds.  This excess demand causes an increase in the “price” of loanable funds, which is the interest rate.  This continues until a new equilibrium is reached.

The opposite occurs if we have a contractionary fiscal policy.  Use the contraction option on the interactive graph to see what happens.

We have discussed how fiscal policy can impact on the interest rate and investment.  We can also use our model to examine the other side of the market – the demand for investment.  One reason investment demand might change is do to technological innovation.  Suppose a new invention such as the computer is introduced.  Before a business or household can take advantage of the new innovation, it must buy the investment good.  Thus technological innovation can lead to increases in investment demand.

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The below interactive graph shows the effects of an increase in investment demand on the interest rate.  An increase in investment demand shifts the investment function to the right.  This causes an immediate increase in the demand form funds.  However, as funds are fixed (i.e. savings are fixed), demand exceeds supply.  As a result of this the “price” of funds (i.e. the interest rate) increases.  However, note that when savings are fixed, while the interest rate is higher, an increase in the investment function does not cause an increase in total investment.

This strange result of unchanged investment given an initial increase in investment demand is a result of our assumption that the savings rate is fixed.  If we allow the savings rate to vary, it becomes dependent on the interest rate.  More people save more at higher interest rates as the return is greater.  This generates an upward sloping from left to right savings curve (similar to a supply curve).  With an upward sloping savings curve, an increase in investment demand would rise the equilibrium interest rate and the equilribium quantity of investment.  This is shown in the below figure.

A video tutorial discussing the above is available below.

Extra Information About in a closed economy, what is the relationship between saving and investment? That You May Find Interested

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EC2102 – Tutorial 2 Savings, Investment and the Interest Rate

EC2102 - Tutorial 2 Savings, Investment and the Interest Rate

  • Author: justindoran.ie

  • Rating: 3⭐ (640376 rating)

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  • Sumary: Because the interest rate is the cost of borrowing and the return to lending in the financial market, we can better understand the role of the interest rate in the economy by thinking about…

  • Matching Result: In this form the national income account identity shows that savings equals investment. We can distinguish between savings in the private sector and savings in …

  • Intro: EC2102 – Tutorial 2 Savings, Investment and the Interest RateBecause the interest rate is the cost of borrowing and the return to lending in the financial market, we can better understand the role of the interest rate in the economy by thinking about the financial markets. To do this we rearrange…
  • Source: http://www.justindoran.ie/ec2102—tutorial-2-savings-investment-and-the-interest-rate.html

Closed economy: IS-LM model – Policonomics

Closed economy: IS-LM model - Policonomics

  • Author: policonomics.com

  • Rating: 3⭐ (640376 rating)

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  • Lowest Rate: 1⭐

  • Sumary: Closed economies are defined as countries that are self-sufficient and autarkic. A widely used analogy by Economics professors is Robinson Crusoe’s island, since Crusoe was unable to trade. This one-man economy is the easiest way to understand closed economies.

  • Matching Result: The IS-LM (Investment Savings-Liquidity preference Money supply) model … It basically shows the relationship between real output and …

  • Intro: Closed economy: IS-LM model – Policonomics The IS-LM (Investment Savings-Liquidity preference Money supply) model focuses on the equilibrium of the market for goods and services, and the money market. It basically shows the relationship between real output and interest rates. It was developed by John R. Hicks, based on J….
  • Source: https://policonomics.com/lp-closed-economy-is-lm/

Frequently Asked Questions About in a closed economy, what is the relationship between saving and investment?

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic in a closed economy, what is the relationship between saving and investment?, then this section may help you solve it.

What connection exists between domestic savings and investment?

Domestic savings (both private and public) are higher than domestic investment in this case because extra financial capital for investment has to come from somewhere, and domestic investment can only exceed domestic saving if capital is flowing into a country from abroad.

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What is the equilibrium relationship between investment and saving?

Theory of Saving and Investment Neoclassical economists contend that saving is a function of thriftiness, while demand for investment is a function of capital’s marginal product, and that the amount of saving determines the amount of investment and the equilibrium interest rate.

What connection exists between productivity and savings and investment?

Because investment must be financed by savings, productivity and investment are directly correlated. Low savings rates can result in lower investment rates, which can then result in lower growth rates for labor productivity and real wages.

What connection exists between growth, investment, and savings?

The high rates of savings increase the amount of capital and result in higher economic growth in the nation. b>A rise in aggregate savings would yield larger investments associated with higher GDP growth./b>

What connection exists between investing and saving?

Savings and investing are two different things; with savings, you put money away to use later; with investing, you put money in with the expectation that its value will rise.

What is the difference between investments and savings?

This type of savings gap, also known as a “savings-investment gap,” is common in less developed economies and refers to the deficit between current aggregate savings and the level of savings necessary to provide funds for business investment.

What connection exists between risk and investment?

By the same token, the smaller the risk an investment poses, the lower the potential return it will provide. The greater the risk that an investment may lose money, the greater its potential to provide a substantial return.

What occurs when saving outpaces investment?

The planned inventory will fall below the desired level when planned savings exceed planned investments, and the producers will have to increase output in order to bring the planned inventory back up to the desired level.

What are the economic distinctions between savings and investment?

The key distinction between saving and investing is the degree of uncertainty about the money you’ll get back. Opening a savings account is a way to set aside your money until you need it. Investing is using your money with the intention of profiting from the future potential of something you buy.

Does a rise in savings lead to a rise in investment?

Higher saving can be reflected in increased net investment, increased net asset purchases, decreased net borrowing, or some combination of these. Savings equals net investment in fixed assets plus net purchases of financial assets less net borrowing (new borrowing less principal payments).

Why does investing have greater impact than saving?

When you invest, there is a chance of greater long-term gains or rewards, but there is also a chance of loss. You take on more risk in investing for a larger return, but your potential loss can be significant as well. When you save, you typically have the ability to withdraw that money when you need it (or after some time).

Short answer: What are savings and investments?

Savings and investment differ in that investing entails purchasing assets such as real estate, gold, stocks, or shares in mutual funds that have the potential to increase in value over time. Savings, on the other hand, is frequently deposited into a bank savings account or a fixed deposit.

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