10 in what ways are nerve cells similar to others Ideas

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Despite the specific molecular, morphological, and functional features of any
particular nerve cell type, the basic structure of neurons resembles that of other
cells. Thus, each nerve cell has a cell body containing a nucleus, endoplasmic
reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other organelles that are
essential to the function of all cells (Figure
1.3). These features are best recognized using the high magnification and
resolution afforded by the electron microscope. The distinguishing characteristic of
nerve cells is their specialization for intercellular communication. This attribute
is apparent in their overall morphology, in the specialization of their membranes
for electrical signaling, and in the structural and functional intricacies of the
synaptic contacts between them.

Figure 1.3. (A) Diagram of nerve cells and their component parts.

Figure 1.3

(A) Diagram of nerve cells and their component parts. (B) Axon initial
segment (blue) entering a myelin sheath (gold). (C) Terminal boutons
(blue) loaded with synaptic vesicles (arrowheads) forming synapses
(arrows) with a dendrite (purple). (D) Transverse (more…)

A particularly salient morphological feature of most nerve cells is the elaborate
arborization of the dendrites (also called dendritic branches or dendritic
processes) that arise from the neuronal cell body. The spectrum of neuronal
geometries ranges from a small minority of cells that lack dendrites altogether to
neurons with dendritic arborizations that rival the complexity of a mature tree (see
Figure 1.1). The number of inputs that a
particular neuron receives depends on the complexity of its dendritic arbor: Nerve
cells that lack dendrites are innervated by just one or a few other nerve cells,
whereas those with increasingly elaborate dendrites are innervated by a
commensurately larger number of other neurons.

The dendrites (together with the cell body) provide the major site for synaptic
terminals
made by the axonal endings of other nerve cells. The synaptic
contact itself is a special elaboration of the secretory apparatus found in most
polarized epithelial cells. Typically, the presynaptic terminal is
immediately adjacent to a postsynaptic specialization of the contacted
cell. For the vast majority of synapses, there is no physical continuity between
these pre- and postsynaptic elements. Instead, the pre- and postsynaptic components
communicate via secretion of molecules from the presynaptic terminal that bind to
receptors in the postsynaptic specialization. These molecules must traverse the
extracellular space between pre- and postsynaptic elements; this interruption is
called the synaptic cleft. The number of synaptic inputs received by each nerve cell
in the human nervous system varies from 1 to about 100,000. This range of inputs
reflects a fundamental purpose of nerve cells, namely to integrate information from
other neurons. The number of inputs onto any particular cell is therefore an
especially important determinant of neuronal function.

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The information from the inputs that impinge on the neuronal dendrites is integrated
and “read out” at the origin of the axon, the portion of the
nerve cell specialized for signal conduction to the next site of synaptic
interaction (see Figures 1.1 and 1.3). The axon is a unique extension from the
neuronal cell body that may travel a few hundred micrometers or much farther,
depending on the type of neuron and the size of the species. Many nerve cells in the
human brain have axons no more than a few millimeters long, and a few have no axons
at all (see, for example, the retinal amacrine cell in Figure 1.1; in fact, amacrine means
“lacking a long process”). These short axons are a defining
feature of local circuit neurons or interneurons throughout the brain. Many axons,
however, extend to more distant targets. For example, the axons that run from the
human spinal cord to the foot are about a meter long. The axonal mechanism that
carries signals over such distances is called the action potential, a
self-regenerating wave of electrical activity that propagates from its point of
initiation at the cell body (called the axon hillock) to the terminus of the axon.
At the axon ending, another set of synaptic contacts is made on yet other cells. The
target cells of neurons include other nerve cells in the brain, spinal cord, and
autonomic ganglia, and the cells of muscles and glands throughout the body.

The process by which information encoded by action potentials is passed on at
synaptic contacts to the next cell in the pathway is called synaptic
transmission
. Presynaptic terminals (also called synaptic endings, axon
terminals, or terminal boutons) and their postsynaptic specializations are typically
chemical synapses, the most abundant type of synapse in the nervous system (another
type, called electrical synapse, is described in Chapter 5). The secretory organelles in the presynaptic
terminal of chemical synapses are called synaptic vesicles, which are filled with
neurotransmitter molecules. The neurotransmitters released from synaptic vesicles
modify the electrical properties of the target cell by binding to
neurotransmitter receptors, which are localized primarily at the
postsynaptic specialization. Neurotransmitters, receptors, and the related
transduction molecules are the machinery that allows nerve cells to communicate with
one another, and with effector cells in muscles and glands.

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Nerve Cells – Neuroscience – NCBI Bookshelf – NIH

Nerve Cells - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf - NIH

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  • Sumary: Despite the specific molecular, morphological, and functional features of any particular nerve cell type, the basic structure of neurons resembles that of other cells. Thus, each nerve cell has a cell body containing a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other organelles that are essential to…

  • Matching Result: The distinguishing characteristic of nerve cells is their specialization for intercellular communication. This attribute is apparent in their overall morphology …

  • Intro: Nerve CellsDespite the specific molecular, morphological, and functional features of any particular nerve cell type, the basic structure of neurons resembles that of other cells. Thus, each nerve cell has a cell body containing a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, and other organelles that are essential to the…
  • Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11103/

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Neurons and Their Role in the Nervous System – Verywell Mind

Neurons and Their Role in the Nervous System - Verywell Mind

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  • Sumary: Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. What makes them so different from other cells in the body? Learn the function they serve.

  • Matching Result: Neurons and other body cells both contain a nucleus that holds genetic information. · Neurons and other body cells are surrounded by a membrane …

  • Intro: How Neurons Transmit Information Throughout the Body A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons…
  • Source: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-neuron-2794890

16.1 Neurons and Glial Cells – Concepts of Biology

16.1 Neurons and Glial Cells – Concepts of Biology

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  • Sumary: Chapter 16. The Nervous System

  • Matching Result: by C Molnar · 2015 · Cited by 2 — A neuron can be compared to an electrical wire—it transmits a signal from one place to another. Glia can be compared to the workers at the electric company who …

  • Intro: 16.1 Neurons and Glial Cells – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition Chapter 16. The Nervous System Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: List and describe the functions of the structural components of a neuron List and describe the four main types of…
  • Source: https://opentextbc.ca/biology/chapter/16-1-neurons-and-glial-cells/

Nerve Tissue – SEER Training

Nerve Tissue - SEER Training

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  • Sumary: Although the nervous system is very complex, there are only two main types of cells in nerve tissue. The actual nerve cell is the neuron. It is the “conducting” cell that transmits impulses and the structural unit of the nervous system. The other type of cell…

  • Matching Result: The actual nerve cell is the neuron. It is the “conducting” cell that transmits impulses and the structural unit of the nervous system. The other type of cell …

  • Intro: Nerve Tissue | SEER Training Although the nervous system is very complex, there are only two main types of cells in nerve tissue. The actual nerve cell is the neuron. It is the “conducting” cell that transmits impulses and the structural unit of the nervous system. The other type of…
  • Source: https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/nervous/tissue.html

Frequently Asked Questions About in what ways are nerve cells similar to others

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic in what ways are nerve cells similar to others, then this section may help you solve it.

What distinguishes neurons from other cells, and what similarities do they share?

Neurons are unique because they have dendrites, which can receive signals from other neurons, and axons, which can send these signals to other cells. Myelin provides insulation for signals traveling along axons. Neurons also have organelles that are common to all cells, such as a nucleus and mitochondria.

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Why do nerve cells resemble batteries?

A resting neuron stores electrical energy similarly to a battery thanks to its plasma membrane, which distinguishes between ions inside and outside the cell (recall that ions are electrically charged atoms and molecules).

Are every nerve cell the same?

In the human body, there are three different types of nerve cells: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

How do nerve cells and skin cells compare?

Both cells have the same basic organelles when they are formed, including the nucleus, which contains genetic material, and the mitochondria, which produces energy, though skin cells eventually lose their organelles. Both cells are derived from the same type of embryonic layer, the ectoderm.

What share characteristics do cells have?

Four things are present in every cell: the plasma membrane, which serves as a barrier between the interior of the cell and the outside world; the cytoplasm, which is the cell’s jelly-like interior; the DNA, which serves as the genetic makeup of the cell; and the…

Quiz: How do neurons and other cells compare?

For the purpose of transmitting impulses to the body, neurons differ from other cells in that they have axons and dendrites in addition to cell membranes and bodies that are filled with organelles, including a nucleus.

What makes nerve cells unique?

The morphology of nerve cells as a whole, the specialization of their membranes for electrical signaling, and the structural and functional complexity of the synaptic contacts between them all reveal the distinctive feature of nerve cells: their specialization for intercellular communication.

How are nerve cells comparable to computers?

Computers send electrical signals through wires to control devices, whereas your brain sends electrical signals through nerve cells, called neurons. Despite being powered by different types of energy, computers and brains both use electrical signals to transmit information.

Do skin and nerve cells share the same genes?

All of the cells in your body share the same genome, but they behave and look very differently depending on where they are located in your body.

What three characteristics do cells all share?

The plasma membrane, an external covering that separates the interior of the cell from its surroundings, the cytoplasm, a jelly-like area inside the cell where other cellular components are found, DNA, the cell’s genetic material, and ribosomes are the four common components that all cells have in common.

What five characteristics do cells all share?

Big Picture: Cells come in a variety of forms, but they all share at least five structural components, including DNA, a cell membrane, cytoplasm, a cytoskeleton, and ribosomes.

How do red blood cells and nerve cells compare?

Red blood cells and nerve cells have many similarities, including the fact that they are both specialized cells, their shape supports their function, and they both have cell membranes, organelles, and cytoplasm.

What are the two traits that all cells share?

2. All cells have cytoplasm, a type of fluid that suspends the organelles within the cell. 1. All cells have a cell membrane that keeps the contents of the cell together.

Do nerve cells resemble copper wires in any way?

Like copper wires, nerve cells are effective electrical conductors.

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