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Compounds, and Mixtures
Compounds, and Mixtures
Any substance that contains only one kind of an atom is known
as an element. Because atoms cannot be created or
destroyed in a chemical reaction, elements such as phosphorus (P4)
or sulfur (S8) cannot be broken down into simpler
substances by these reactions.
Example: Water decomposes into a mixture of hydrogen and
oxygen when an electric current is passed through the liquid.
Hydrogen and oxygen, on the other hand, cannot be decomposed into
simpler substances. They are therefore the elementary, or
simplest, chemical substances – elements.
Each element is represented by a unique symbol. The notation
for each element can be found on the periodic table of elements.
The elements can be divided into three categories that have
characteristic properties: metals, nonmetals, and semimetals.
Most elements are metals, which are found on the left and toward
the bottom of the periodic table. A handful of nonmetals are
clustered in the upper right corner of the periodic table. The
semimetals can be found along the dividing line between the
metals and the nonmetals.
Elements are made up of atoms, the smallest
particle that has any of the properties of the element.John
Dalton, in 1803, proposed a modern theory of the atom based on
the following assumptions.
1. Matter is made up
2. All atoms of an element are
3. Atoms of different elements have
4. Atoms of different elements
5. Atoms cannot be created or
Elements combine to form chemical compounds that are often
divided into two categories.
Metals often react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds.
These compounds are composed of positive and negative ions formed
by adding or subtracting electrons from neutral atoms and
Nonmetals combine with each other to form covalent
compounds, which exist as neutral molecules.
The shorthand notation for a compound describes the number of
atoms of each element, which is indicated by a subscript written
after the symbol for the element. By convention, no subscript is
written when a molecule contains only one atom of an element.
Thus, water is H2O and carbon dioxide is CO2.
Ionic and Covalent Compounds
Exist as neutral
Lower melting and
Relatively weak force
Remain as same molecule
Determining if a
Compound is Ionic or Covalent
Calculate the difference between the electronegativities of
two elements in a compound and the average of their
electronegativites, and find the intersection of these values on
the figure shown below to help determine if the compound is ionic
or covalent, or metallic.
each of the following compounds, predict whether you
would expect it to be ionic or covalent.
(a) chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3
(b) carbon tetrachloride, CCl4
(c) methanol, CH3OH
(d) strontium fluoride, SrF2
to check your answer to Practice Problem 1
the following data to propose a way of distinguishing
between ionic and covalent compounds.
|Compound||Melting Point ( oC)||Boiling Point ( oC)|
here to check your answer to Practice Problem 2
A molecule is the smallest particle that has any of the
properties of a compound. The formula for a molecule must be
neutral. When writing the formula for an ionic compound, the
charges on the ions must balance, the number of postive charges
must equal the number of negative charges.
|CaCl2||Balanced formula has 2 positive charges (1 calcium
ion with +2 charge) and 2 negative charges (2 chloride
ions with a -1 charge)
|Al2(SO4)3||Balanced formula has 6 positive charges (2 aluminum
ions with a +3 charge) and 6 negative charges (3 sulfate
ions with -2 charge)
Mixtures Vs. Compounds
The law of constant composition states that
the ratio by mass of the elements in a chemical compound is
always the same, regardless of the source of the compound. The
law of constant composition can be used to distinguish between
compounds and mixtures of elements: Compounds have a
constant composition; mixtures do not. Water is always
88.8% O and 11.2% H by weight regardless of its source. Brass is
an example of a mixture of two elements: copper and zinc. It can
contain as little as 10%, or as much as 45%, zinc.
Another difference between compounds and mixtures of elements
is the ease with which the elements can be separated. Mixtures,
such as the atmosphere, contain two or more substances that are
relatively easy to separate. The individual components of a
mixture can be physically separated from each other.
Chemical compounds are very different from mixtures: The
elements in a chemical compound can only be separated by
destroying the compound. Some of the differences between chemical
compounds and mixtures of elements are illustrated by the
following example using raisin bran and “Crispix.”.
Raisin bran has the following characteristic properties of a mixture.
- The cereal does not have a constant composition; the
ratio of raisins to bran flakes changes from sample to
- It is easy to physically separate the two
“elements,” to pick out the raisins, for
example, and eat them separately.
Crispix has some of the characteristic properties of a compound.
- The ratio of rice flakes to corn flakes is constant; it
is 1:1 in every sample.
- There is no way to separate the “elements”
without breaking the bonds that hold them together.
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What names do the substances that result from chemical atom fusion?
All matter in the universe is composed of the atoms of more than 100 different chemical elements, which are both found in pure form and combined in chemical compounds. A chemical compound is any substance composed of identical molecules consisting of atoms of two or more chemical elements.
What substance results from the fusion of two elements?