10 substances produced when atoms of elements chemically combine with each other are called Ideas

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Compounds, and Mixtures

Elements,
Compounds, and Mixtures


Elements

Any substance that contains only one kind of an atom is known
as an element. Because atoms cannot be created or
destroyed in a chemical reaction, elements such as phosphorus (P4)
or sulfur (S8) cannot be broken down into simpler
substances by these reactions.

Example: Water decomposes into a mixture of hydrogen and
oxygen when an electric current is passed through the liquid.
Hydrogen and oxygen, on the other hand, cannot be decomposed into
simpler substances. They are therefore the elementary, or
simplest, chemical substances – elements.

Each element is represented by a unique symbol. The notation
for each element can be found on the periodic table of elements.

The elements can be divided into three categories that have
characteristic properties: metals, nonmetals, and semimetals.
Most elements are metals, which are found on the left and toward
the bottom of the periodic table. A handful of nonmetals are
clustered in the upper right corner of the periodic table. The
semimetals can be found along the dividing line between the
metals and the nonmetals.

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Atoms

Elements are made up of atoms, the smallest
particle that has any of the properties of the element.John
Dalton, in 1803, proposed a modern theory of the atom based on
the following assumptions.

1. Matter is made up
of atoms that are indivisible and indestructible.

2. All atoms of an element are
identical.

3. Atoms of different elements have
different weights and different chemical properties.

4. Atoms of different elements
combine in simple whole numbers to form compounds.

5. Atoms cannot be created or
destroyed. When a compound decomposes, the atoms are
recovered unchanged.

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Compounds

Elements combine to form chemical compounds that are often
divided into two categories.

Metals often react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds.
These compounds are composed of positive and negative ions formed
by adding or subtracting electrons from neutral atoms and
molecules.

Equation

Nonmetals combine with each other to form covalent
compounds
, which exist as neutral molecules.

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Equation

The shorthand notation for a compound describes the number of
atoms of each element, which is indicated by a subscript written
after the symbol for the element. By convention, no subscript is
written when a molecule contains only one atom of an element.
Thus, water is H2O and carbon dioxide is CO2.

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Characteristics of
Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Ionic
Compounds

Covalent Compounds

Contain
positive and negative ions (Na+Cl)

Exist as neutral
molecules (C6H12O2)

Solids
suchs as table salt (NaCl(s))

Solids, liquids,or
gases (C6H12O6(s), H2O(l),
CO2(g))

High
melting and boiling points

Lower melting and
boiling points (i.e., often exist as a liquid or gas at
room temperature)

Strong
force of attraction between particles

Relatively weak force
of attraction between molecules

Separate
into charged particles in water to give a solution that
conducts electricity

equation

Remain as same molecule
in water and will not conduct electricity

equation

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Determining if a
Compound is Ionic or Covalent

Calculate the difference between the electronegativities of
two elements in a compound and the average of their
electronegativites, and find the intersection of these values on
the figure shown below to help determine if the compound is ionic
or covalent, or metallic.

diagram

Practice Problem 1:

For
each of the following compounds, predict whether you
would expect it to be ionic or covalent.  

(a) chromium(III) oxide, Cr2O3

(b) carbon tetrachloride, CCl4

(c) methanol, CH3OH

(d) strontium fluoride, SrF2

Click here
to check your answer to Practice Problem 1

Practice Problem 2:

Use
the following data to propose a way of distinguishing
between ionic and covalent compounds.

Compound Melting Point ( oC) Boiling Point ( oC)
Cr2O3 2266 4000
SrF2 1470 2489
CCl4 -22.9 76.6
CH3OH -97.8 64.7

Click
here to check your answer to Practice Problem 2

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Formulas

A molecule is the smallest particle that has any of the
properties of a compound. The formula for a molecule must be
neutral. When writing the formula for an ionic compound, the
charges on the ions must balance, the number of postive charges
must equal the number of negative charges.

Examples:

CaCl2 Balanced formula has 2 positive charges (1 calcium
ion with +2 charge) and 2 negative charges (2 chloride
ions with a -1 charge)
Al2(SO4)3 Balanced formula has 6 positive charges (2 aluminum
ions with a +3 charge) and 6 negative charges (3 sulfate
ions with -2 charge)

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Mixtures Vs. Compounds

The law of constant composition states that
the ratio by mass of the elements in a chemical compound is
always the same, regardless of the source of the compound. The
law of constant composition can be used to distinguish between
compounds and mixtures of elements: Compounds have a
constant composition; mixtures do not
. Water is always
88.8% O and 11.2% H by weight regardless of its source. Brass is
an example of a mixture of two elements: copper and zinc. It can
contain as little as 10%, or as much as 45%, zinc.

Another difference between compounds and mixtures of elements
is the ease with which the elements can be separated. Mixtures,
such as the atmosphere, contain two or more substances that are
relatively easy to separate. The individual components of a
mixture can be physically separated from each other.

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Chemical compounds are very different from mixtures: The
elements in a chemical compound can only be separated by
destroying the compound. Some of the differences between chemical
compounds and mixtures of elements are illustrated by the
following example using raisin bran and “Crispix.”.

Raisin bran has the following characteristic properties of a mixture.

  • The cereal does not have a constant composition; the
    ratio of raisins to bran flakes changes from sample to
    sample.
  • It is easy to physically separate the two
    “elements,” to pick out the raisins, for
    example, and eat them separately.

Crispix has some of the characteristic properties of a compound.

  • The ratio of rice flakes to corn flakes is constant; it
    is 1:1 in every sample.
  • There is no way to separate the “elements”
    without breaking the bonds that hold them together.

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Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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  • Sumary: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

  • Matching Result: Elements combine to form chemical compounds that are often divided into two categories. Metals often react with nonmetals to form ionic compounds. These …

  • Intro: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Elements Any substance that contains only one kind of an atom is known as an element. Because atoms cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction, elements such as phosphorus (P4) or sulfur (S8) cannot be broken down into simpler substances…
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19 Classification of Matter (Elements, Compounds, Mixtures)

19 Classification of Matter (Elements, Compounds, Mixtures)

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  • Matching Result: Substances and Mixtures. Substances are composed of pure elements or chemically bonded elements, whereas mixtures are composed of nonbonded substances.

  • Intro: Classification of Matter (Elements, Compounds, Mixtures) – Introductory Chemistry LumenLearning Substances and Mixtures Substances are composed of pure elements or chemically bonded elements, whereas mixtures are composed of nonbonded substances. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Distinguish chemical substances from mixtures. KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points Matter can be broken down into two categories: pure…
  • Source: https://uen.pressbooks.pub/introductorychemistry/chapter/classification-of-matter-elements-compounds-mixtures/

Compound vs Mixture – Difference and Comparison – Diffen

Compound vs Mixture - Difference and Comparison - Diffen

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  • Sumary: What’s the difference between Compound and Mixture? Compounds are pure substances. They are made from the same types of molecules. Each molecule of a compound is made from two or more different kinds of atoms that are chemically bonded. Mixtures are made of two or more…

  • Matching Result: A compound contains atoms of different elements chemically combined together in a fixed ratio. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances where there …

  • Intro: Compound vs Mixture Compounds are pure substances. They are made from the same types of molecules. Each molecule of a compound is made from two or more different kinds of atoms that are chemically bonded. Mixtures are made of two or more substances — elements or compounds — that are…
  • Source: https://www.diffen.com/difference/Compound_vs_Mixture

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CHEMISTRY REVIEW

CHEMISTRY REVIEW

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  • Matching Result: Compounds are made up of two or more elements combined in definite quantities and in definite proportions by chemical bonds. Substances are pure forms of matter …

  • Intro: CHEMISTRY REVIEW CHEMISTRY REVIEW General Chemistry Elements are the simplest form of matter; cannot be broken down further by either physical or chemical means. Compounds are made up of two or more elements combined in definite quantities and in definite proportions by chemical bonds. Substances are pure forms of matter…
  • Source: https://www.austincc.edu/lesalbin/CHEMISTRY%20REVIEW.htm

What is a combination of two or more elements chemically …

What is a combination of two or more elements chemically ...

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  • Sumary: A combination of two or more elements chemically combined is a compound . Compounds can be molecular or ionic. In a molecular compound, the electrons of the elements making it up…

  • Matching Result: In an ionic compound, atoms lose or gain electrons and form positive or negative ions. Oppositely charged ions are attracted to one another …

  • Intro: What is a combination of two or more elements chemically combined? | Socratic A combination of two or more elements chemically combined is a compound . Compounds can be molecular or ionic. In a molecular compound, the electrons of the elements making it up are shared, forming covalent bonds. The…
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Chemical compound | Definition, Examples, & Types | Britannica

Chemical compound | Definition, Examples, & Types | Britannica

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  • Sumary: chemical compound, any substance composed of identical molecules consisting of atoms of two or more chemical elements. All the matter in the universe is composed of the atoms of more than 100 different chemical elements, which are found both in pure form…

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  • Intro: Chemical compound | Definition, Examples, & Types Entertainment & Pop Culture Geography & Travel Health & Medicine Lifestyles & Social Issues Literature Philosophy & Religion Politics, Law & Government Science Sports & Recreation Technology Visual Arts World History On This Day in History Quizzes Podcasts Dictionary Biographies Summaries Top Questions…
  • Source: https://www.britannica.com/science/chemical-compound

Frequently Asked Questions About substances produced when atoms of elements chemically combine with each other are called

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What names do the substances that result from chemical atom fusion?

All matter in the universe is composed of the atoms of more than 100 different chemical elements, which are both found in pure form and combined in chemical compounds. A chemical compound is any substance composed of identical molecules consisting of atoms of two or more chemical elements.

What substance results from the fusion of two elements?

compound

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