10 the side chain of an amino acid differentiates one amino acid from another. Ideas

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.com: Biochemistry: Amino Acids


Acids in Proteins?

The first thing you might be asking is, “What is an amino acid?” There are more than fifty, and each one of them is a little different. Amino acids are used in every cell of your body to build the proteins you need to survive. All organisms need some proteins, whether they are used in muscles or as simple structures in the cell membrane. Even though all organisms have differences, they still have one thing in common: the need for basic chemical building blocks.

Structure of an amino acid
Amino acids have a two-carbon bond. One of the carbons is part of a group called the carboxyl group (COO). A carboxyl group is made up of one carbon (C) and two oxygen (O) atoms. That carboxyl group has a negative charge, since it is a carboxylic acid (-COOH) that has lost its hydrogen (H) atom. What is left — the carboxyl group — is called a conjugate base. The second carbon is connected to the amino group. Amino means there is an NH2 group bonded to the carbon atom. In the image, you see a “+” and a “-“. Those positive and negative signs are there because, in amino acids, one hydrogen atom moves to the other end of the molecule. An extra “H” gives you a positive charge.

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Making Chains

Even though scientists have discovered over 50 amino acids, only 20 are used to make something called proteins in your body. Of those twenty, nine are defined as essential. The other eleven can be synthesized by an adult body. Thousands of combinations of those twenty are used to make all of the proteins in your body. Amino acids bond together to make long chains. Those long chains of amino acids are also called proteins.

Essential Amino Acids: Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, and Valine.
Nonessential Amino Acids: Alanine, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid.
Conditional Amino Acids: Arginine (essential in children, not in adults), Cysteine, Glutamine, Glycine, Proline, Serine, and Tyrosine.

Something Called Side Groups

Chains of amino acids
The side groups are what make each amino acid different from the others. Of the 20 side groups used to make proteins, there are two main groups: polar and non-polar. These names refer to the way the side groups, sometimes called “R” groups, interact with the environment. Polar amino acids like to adjust themselves in a certain direction. Non-polar amino acids don’t really care what’s going on around them. The polar and nonpolar chemical traits allow amino acids to point towards water (hydrophilic) or away from water (hydrophobic). The growing chains can then begin to twist and turn when they are being synthesized.

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Biochemistry: Amino Acids – Chem4Kids.com

Biochemistry: Amino Acids - Chem4Kids.com

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  • Sumary: Chem4Kids.com! This tutorial introduces amino acids. Other sections include matter, elements, the periodic table, reactions, and atoms.

  • Matching Result: Two of these groups are the same for each amino acid, but the third – known as a side chain – differentiates one amino acid from another.

  • Intro: Chem4Kids.com: Biochemistry: Amino Acids Acids in Proteins? The first thing you might be asking is, “What is an amino acid?” There are more than fifty, and each one of them is a little different. Amino acids are used in every cell of your body to build the proteins you need…
  • Source: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/bio_aminoacid.html

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6.1: Introduction to Proteins – Medicine LibreTexts

6.1: Introduction to Proteins - Medicine LibreTexts

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  • Matching Result: Amino acids differ from each other by which specific side chain (R) is bonded to the carbon center. The side chain of an amino acid can be as …

  • Intro: 6.1: Introduction to Proteins Last updated Save as PDF Page ID21135 Learning Objectives Describe the structure of amino acids. Differentiate between an essential amino acid and a non-essential amino acid. Describe protein synthesis. What Is Protein? Proteins are large, complex molecules that are essential components of all human tissues (e.g.,…
  • Source: https://med.libretexts.org/Courses/Metropolitan_State_University_of_Denver/Introduction_to_Nutrition_(Diker)/06%3A_Proteins/6.02%3A_Defining_Protein

Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids – Quia

Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids - Quia

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  • Matching Result: Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids ; Side chain, The unique chemical structure attached to the backbone of each amino acid that differentiates one amino …

  • Intro: Chapter 6: The Proteins and Amino Acids AB ProteinsCompounds composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen as arranged as strands of Amino acids. Some Amino acids also contain the element Sulphur. Amino acidsThe building blocks of protein. Each has an amine group at one end, an acid group at the…
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Frequently Asked Questions About the side chain of an amino acid differentiates one amino acid from another.

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic the side chain of an amino acid differentiates one amino acid from another., then this section may help you solve it.

What sets one amino acid apart from another?

The R group for each of the amino acids will have a different structure, electrical charge, and polarity, and is what is known as the b>side chains/b> of the amino acids.

What makes one amino acid different from another quizlet?

The side chain of an amino acid distinguishes one amino acid from another. Amino acids are joined by a chemical bond known as an amino acid bond to form proteins.

What function does an amino acid’s side chain serve?

Each amino acid has a unique side chain that is connected to the alpha-carbon and is responsible for determining the charge and polarity of the amino acid as well as many of the interactions that result in proper protein folding and function.

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Quiz: What distinguishes essential amino acids from other amino acids?

What distinguishes non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids, which the body can make, from essential amino acids, which cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from the diet?

Quizlet: What distinguishes amino acids from one another?

The R group, which has a different structure for each amino acid, is what separates one amino acid from another. Each amino acid has a central carbon (alpha carbon) attached to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen, and an R group.

Why are amino acids’ side chains so crucial, quizlet?

A classification scheme for amino acids can be based on the characteristics of their side chains, with two particularly significant criteria being the presence of an acidic or basic group in the side chain and the side chain’s polarity or nonpolarity.

What impact does the side chain have?

Both the glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) of P3ATs, as determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), are significantly influenced by the side-chain branch position.

Quizlet: What does an amino acid’s side chain determine?

Each of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids differs from the others in the atoms that make up the side chain, and it is this difference that gives each amino acid its particular chemical characteristics.

Why is the side chain of an amino acid basic?

Arginine (Arg), Lysine (Lys), and Histidine (His) are three amino acids with basic side chains at neutral pH; their side chains contain nitrogen and resemble ammonia, a base; and their pKa’s are high enough that they tend to bind protons, gaining a positive charge in the process.

What role does the side chain play in proteins?

Because charged amino acid side chains can form ionic bonds and polar amino acid side chains can form hydrogen bonds with one another to hold a length of protein in a specific shape or conformation, the chemistry of amino acid side chains is crucial to protein structure.

What makes the side chain crucial?

Because each amino acid is bound to a different chemical group at this location, known as its side chain, each amino acid is distinct and has a different set of chemical properties.

What is a side chain defined as?

A branched chain of atoms that is joined to the main chain or to a ring in a molecule is referred to as a side chain.

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