10 what are the three parts of the continental margin Ideas

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al margin

Profile illustrating the shelf, slope and rise

A continental margin is the outer edge of continental crust abutting oceanic crust under coastal waters. It is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges. The continental margin consists of three different features: the continental rise, the continental slope, and the continental shelf.[1] The continental shelf is the relatively shallow water area found in proximity to continents. Continental margins constitute about 28% of the oceanic area.[2]

Zones of the continental margin[edit]

The continental shelf is the portion of the continental margin that transitions from the shore out towards to ocean. Continental shelves are believed to make up 7% of the sea floor.[3] The width of continental shelves worldwide varies in the range of 0.03–1500 km.[4] The continental shelf is generally flat, and ends at the shelf break, where there is a drastic increase in slope angle: The mean angle of continental shelves worldwide is 0° 07′, and typically steeper closer to the coastline than it is near the shelf break.[5] At the shelf break begins the continental slope, which can be 1–5 km above the deep-ocean floor. The continental slope often exhibits features called submarine canyons.[4] Submarine canyons often cut into the continental shelves deeply, with near vertical sides, and continue to cut the morphology to the abyssal plain.[5] These canyons are often V-shaped, and can sometime enlarge onto the continental shelf. At the base of the continental slope, there is a sudden decrease in slope angle, and the sea floor begins to level out towards the abyssal plain. This portion of the seafloor is called the continental rise, and marks the outermost zone of the continental margin.[1]

Types[edit]

There are two types of continental margins: active and passive margins.[1]

Active margins are typically associated with lithospheric plate boundaries. These active margins can be convergent or transform margins, and are also places of high tectonic activity, including volcanoes and earthquakes. The West Coast of North America and South America are active margins.[4] Active continental margins are typically narrow from coast to shelf break, with steep descents into trenches.[4] Convergent active margins occur where oceanic plates meet continental plates. The denser oceanic crust of one plate subducts below the less dense continental crust of another plate. Convergent active margins are the most common type of active margin. Transform active margins are more rare, and occur when an oceanic plate and a continental plate are moving parallel to each other in opposite directions. These transform margins are often characterized by many offshore faults, which causes high degree of relief offshore, marked by islands, shallow banks, and deep basins. This is known as the continental borderland.[1]

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Passive margins are often located in the interior of lithospheric plates, away from the plate boundaries, and lack major tectonic activity. They often face mid-ocean ridges.[3] From this, comes a wide variety of features, such as low-relief land extending miles away from the beach, long river systems and piles of sediment accumulating on the continental shelf.[6] The East Coast of the United States is an example of a passive margin. These margins are much wider and less steep than active margins.

Sediment accumulation[edit]

As continental crust weathers and erodes, it degrades into mainly sands and clays. Many of these particles end up in streams and rivers that then dump into the ocean. Of all the sediment in the stream load, 80% is then trapped and dispersed on continental margins.[3] While modern river sediment is often still preserved closer to shore, continental shelves show high levels of glacial and relict sediments, deposited when sea level was lower.[3] Often found on passive margins are several kilometres of sediment, consisting of terrigenous and carbonate (biogenous) deposits. These sediment reservoirs are often useful in the study of paleoceanography and the original formation of ocean basins.[3] These deposits are often not well preserved on active margin shelves due to tectonic activity.[4]

Economic significance[edit]

The continental shelf is the most economically valuable part of the ocean. It often is the most productive portion of the continental margin, as well as the most studied portion, due to its relatively shallow, accessible depths.[4]

Due to the rise of offshore drilling, mining and the limitations of fisheries off the continental shelf, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) was established. The edge of the continental margin is one criterion for the boundary of the internationally recognized claims to underwater resources by countries in the definition of the “continental shelf” by the UNCLOS (although in the UN definition the “legal continental shelf” may extend beyond the geomorphological continental shelf and vice versa).[2] Such resources include fishing grounds, oil and gas accumulations, sand, gravel, and some heavy minerals in the shallower areas of the margin. Metallic minerals resources are thought to also be associated with certain active margins, and of great value.[3]

See also[edit]

  • Continent-ocean boundary
  • Convergent boundary
  • Passive margin

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d V., Thurman, Harold (2014-01-01). Essentials of Oceanography. Pearson. ISBN 9780321668127. OCLC 815043823.
  2. ^ a b Cook, P.J.; Carleton, Chris (2000). Continental shelf limits : the scientific and legal interface. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511782-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Board., National Research Council (U.S.). Ocean Sciences (1979-01-01). Continental margins : geological and geophysical research needs and problems. National Academy of Sciences. ISBN 0309027934.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Grotzinger, Jordan (2007). Understanding Earth. W H Freeman. pp. 491–496. ISBN 978-0716766827.
  5. ^ a b Gulicher, Andre (1958). Coastal and Submarine Morphology. Great Britain: Butler & Tanner Ltd. pp. 205–215.
  6. ^ “Active and passive continental margins”.

External links[edit]

  • Map showing the locations of active and passive continental margins and the eight ocean regions

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Continental margin – Wikipedia

Continental margin - Wikipedia

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  • Matching Result: The continental margin consists of three different features: the continental rise, the continental slope, and the continental shelf. … The continental shelf is …

  • Intro: Continental margin Profile illustrating the shelf, slope and rise A continental margin is the outer edge of continental crust abutting oceanic crust under coastal waters. It is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges. The continental margin consists…
  • Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Continental_margin

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continental margin | geology – Encyclopedia Britannica

continental margin | geology - Encyclopedia Britannica

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  • Sumary: continental margin, the submarine edge of the continental crust distinguished by relatively light and isostatically high-floating material in comparison with the adjacent oceanic crust. It is the name for the collective area that encompasses the continental shelf, continental slope, and…

  • Matching Result: It is the name for the collective area that encompasses the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise.

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Major Continental Margin Feature

Major Continental Margin Feature

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  • Sumary: Moving offshore from the coast, the following features occur:

  • Matching Result: Major Continental Margin Features · Continental shelf. This is very shallow water, and underlain by continental crust. · Continental slope.

  • Intro: Major Continental Margin Feature from ONR. Moving offshore from the coast, the following features occur: Continental shelf.  This is very shallow water, and underlain by continental crust. In the legal and not geological sense, if the continental shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles, a country can extend its EEZ to…
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1.2 Continental Margins – Introduction to Oceanography

1.2 Continental Margins – Introduction to Oceanography

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  • Sumary: Portions modified from “Physical Geology” by Steven Earle*

  • Matching Result: A passive continental margin occurs where the transition from land to sea is not associated with a plate boundary. The east coast of the United States is a good …

  • Intro: 1.2 Continental Margins – Introduction to Oceanography Portions modified from “Physical Geology” by Steven Earle* refer to the region of transition from the land to the deep seafloor, i.e. between and . In an , the boundary between the continent and the ocean is also a boundary, so there is…
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Continental Margins – Geology – Cliffs Notes

Continental Margins - Geology - Cliffs Notes

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  • Sumary: Active and passive margins. Continental margins are defined as active or passive according to the presence or absence, respectively, of plate tectonic activity.

  • Matching Result: A passive continental margin has a landward, shallow continental shelf, a deeper continental slope, a continental rise, and a flat abyssal plain (Figure 2).

  • Intro: Continental Margins Active and passive margins. Continental margins are defined as active or passive according to the presence or absence, respectively, of plate tectonic activity. Earthquakes and volcanoes are associated with active continental margins, which are marked by a landward continental shelf, a much steeper continental slope that ends at…
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Continental margin | Geology Wiki – Fandom

Continental margin | Geology Wiki - Fandom

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  • Sumary: The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges. The continental margin is the shallow water area found in proximity to continent. The continental margin consists of three different features:…

  • Matching Result: The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges.

  • Intro: Continental margin File:Continental shelf.png Profile illustrating the shelf, slope and rise The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges. The continental margin is the shallow water area found in proximity to continent.[1] The continental margin…
  • Source: https://geology.fandom.com/wiki/Continental_margin

Frequently Asked Questions About what are the three parts of the continental margin

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic what are the three parts of the continental margin, then this section may help you solve it.

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What three qualities does the continental shelf have?

Continental shelves have surfaces that exhibit some relief, with small hills and ridges that alternate with shallow depressions and valleylike troughs, and are typically covered with a layer of sand, silts, and silty muds.

What are the top three characteristics of an inactive continental margin?

The continental shelf, the continental slope, and the continental rise are the features that make up passive continental margins. The continental shelf is the flooded extension of the continent, and the continental slope has the steepest slope.

The continental margin is what?

The term “continental margin” refers to the region that includes the continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise, and is defined as “the submarine edge of the continental crust distinguished by relatively light and isostatically high-floating material in comparison with the adjacent oceanic crust.”

What does a continental margin look like?

A passive continental margin occurs when the transition from land to sea is not connected to a plate boundary, such as along the west coast of the United States, where the coastline coincides with the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates.

What traits distinguish a continental margin?

The continental shelf is the relatively shallow water area found close to continents, and the continental rise, slope, and continental shelf are the three distinct features that make up the continental margin, which makes up about 28% of the oceanic area.

What characteristics define the continent?

Any prominent topographic feature on the largest landmasses of the planet, such as mountains (including volcanic cones), plateaus, and valleys, is referred to as a continental landform.

What components make up a passive margin?

For this reason, passive margins are composed of a seaward-tapering wedge of continental crust that is divided by faults, covered by sedimentary basins, and juxtaposed with oceanic crust. Passive margins, also known as rifted margins, mark the locations where continents have rifted apart to become separated by an ocean.

A passive continental margin is composed of what?

The Atlantic and Gulf coasts exhibit the typical topography of a passive continental margin, consisting of a low-lying coastal plain, a broad continental shelf, followed by a steep continental slope, a gentle continental rise, and a flat abyssal plain.

What does not make up the margin of the continent?

Coral reefs enclosing a lagoon are an example of what is NOT a part of the continental margin.

What is the quizlet on continental margins?

The continental shelf, continental slope, and continental rise collectively make up the continental margin, the region of the ocean floor that divides the thick continental crust from the thin oceanic crust.

Which of the three plate boundaries are they?

The majority of seismic activity happens at three different types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform. As the plates pass one another, they occasionally become caught, creating pressure.

Three continental plates are what?

Seven major plates—the African, Antarctic, Eurasian, Indo-Australian, North American, Pacific, and South American plates—are divided into major, minor, and micro tectonic plates.

What components make up the continental crust?

The layer of granitic, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that make up the continents and the shallow seabed areas near their shores (continental shelves) is known as the continental crust.

What are the three types of crust on the Earth?

Earth’s crust is made up of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, which range in composition from mud and clay to diamonds and coal. Igneous rocks, which are formed when magma cools, are the most prevalent in the crust, and include granite and basalt.

What constitutes the bulk of the continental crust?

Eight elements—oxygen, silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium—make up about 98% of the crust as a whole. The remaining 2% is made up of titanium, hydrogen, phosphorous, manganese, sulphur, carbon, nickel, and other elements.

What materials make up continental plates?

While the oceanic crust is made of basaltic rocks, which are much denser and heavier, the continental crust is made of granitic rocks, which are composed of relatively lightweight minerals like quartz and feldspar.

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