10 what do physical and chemical properties have in common Ideas

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3.5: Differences in Matter- Physical and Chemical Properties

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  • Learning Objectives

    To separate physical from chemical properties.

    All matter has physical and chemical properties. Physical properties are characteristics that scientists can measure without changing the composition of the sample under study, such as mass, color, and volume (the amount of space occupied by a sample). Chemical properties describe the characteristic ability of a substance to react to form new substances; they include its flammability and susceptibility to corrosion. All samples of a pure substance have the same chemical and physical properties. For example, pure copper is always a reddish-brown solid (a physical property) and always dissolves in dilute nitric acid to produce a blue solution and a brown gas (a chemical property).

    Physical Property

    A physical property is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Silver is a shiny metal that conducts electricity very well. It can be molded into thin sheets, a property called malleability. Salt is dull and brittle and conducts electricity when it has been dissolved into water, which it does quite easily. Physical properties of matter include color, hardness, malleability, solubility, electrical conductivity, density, melting point, and boiling point.

    For the elements, color does not vary much from one element to the next. The vast majority of elements are colorless, silver, or gray. Some elements do have distinctive colors: sulfur and chlorine are yellow, copper is (of course) copper-colored, and elemental bromine is red. However, density can be a very useful parameter for identifying an element. Of the materials that exist as solids at room temperature, iodine has a very low density compared to zinc, chromium, and tin. Gold has a very high density, as does platinum. Pure water, for example, has a density of 0.998 g/cm3 at 25°C. The average densities of some common substances are in Table \(\PageIndex{1}\). Notice that corn oil has a lower mass to volume ratio than water. This means that when added to water, corn oil will “float.”

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    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Densities of Common Substances
    Substance Density at 25°C (g/cm3)
    blood 1.035
    body fat 0.918
    whole milk 1.030
    corn oil 0.922
    mayonnaise 0.910
    honey 1.420

    Hardness helps determine how an element (especially a metal) might be used. Many elements are fairly soft (silver and gold, for example) while others (such as titanium, tungsten, and chromium) are much harder. Carbon is an interesting example of hardness. In graphite, (the “lead” found in pencils) the carbon is very soft, while the carbon in a diamond is roughly seven times as hard.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Pencil (left) and Diamond ring (right). Both are a form of carbon, but exhibit very different physical properties.

    Melting and boiling points are somewhat unique identifiers, especially of compounds. In addition to giving some idea as to the identity of the compound, important information can be obtained about the purity of the material.

    Chemical Properties

    Chemical properties of matter describe its potential to undergo some chemical change or reaction by virtue of its composition. The elements, electrons, and bonds that are present give the matter potential for chemical change. It is quite difficult to define a chemical property without using the word “change”. Eventually, after studying chemistry for some time, you should be able to look at the formula of a compound and state some chemical property. For example, hydrogen has the potential to ignite and explode given the right conditions—this is a chemical property. Metals in general have the chemical property of reacting with an acid. Zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas—this is a chemical property.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Heavy rust on the links of a chain near the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco; it was continuously exposed to moisture and salt spray, causing surface breakdown, cracking, and flaking of the metal. (CC BY-SA 3.0; Marlith).

    A chemical property of iron is its capability of combining with oxygen to form iron oxide, the chemical name of rust (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\)). The more general term for rusting and other similar processes is corrosion. Other terms that are commonly used in descriptions of chemical changes are burn, rot, explode, decompose, and ferment. Chemical properties are very useful in identifying substances. However, unlike physical properties, chemical properties can only be observed as the substance is in the process of being changed into a different substance.

    Table \(\PageIndex{2}\): Contrasting Physical and Chemical Properties
    Physical Properties Chemical Properties
    Gallium metal melts at 30 oC. Iron metal rusts.
    Mercury is a very dense liquid. A green banana turns yellow when it ripens.
    Gold is shiny. A dry piece of paper burns.
    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    Which of the following is a chemical property of iron?

    1. Iron corrodes in moist air.
    2. Density = 7.874 g/cm3
    3. Iron is soft when pure.
    4. Iron melts at 1808 K.

    Solution

    “Iron corrodes in moist air” is the only chemical property of iron from the list.

    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1A}\)

    Which of the following is a physical property of matter?

    1. corrosiveness
    2. pH (acidity)
    3. density
    4. flammability
    Answer
    c
    Exercise \(\PageIndex{1B}\)

    Which of the following is a chemical property?

    1. flammability
    2. melting point
    3. boiling point
    4. density
    Answer
    a

    Summary

    A physical property is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Physical properties include color, density, hardness, and melting and boiling points. A chemical property describes the ability of a substance to undergo a specific chemical change. To identify a chemical property, we look for a chemical change. A chemical change always produces one or more types of matter that differ from the matter present before the change. The formation of rust is a chemical change because rust is a different kind of matter than the iron, oxygen, and water present before the rust formed.

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    3.5: Differences in Matter- Physical and Chemical Properties

    3.5: Differences in Matter- Physical and Chemical Properties

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    • Sumary: A physical property is a characteristic of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Physical properties include color, density, hardness, melting points,…

    • Matching Result: Physical properties include color, density, hardness, and melting and boiling points. A chemical property describes the ability of a substance …

    • Intro: 3.5: Differences in Matter- Physical and Chemical Properties Last updated Save as PDF Page ID47458 Learning Objectives To separate physical from chemical properties. All matter has physical and chemical properties. Physical properties are characteristics that scientists can measure without changing the composition of the sample under study, such as mass,…
    • Source: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_Chemistry/Map%3A_Introductory_Chemistry_(Tro)/03%3A_Matter_and_Energy/3.05%3A_Differences_in_Matter-_Physical_and_Chemical_Properties

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    Physical and Chemical Properties | Chemistry for Majors

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    • Intro: Physical and Chemical Properties | Chemistry for Majors Learning Outcomes Identify properties of and changes in matter as physical or chemical Identify properties of matter as extensive or intensive The characteristics that enable us to distinguish one substance from another are called properties. A physical property is a characteristic of…
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    Basic Difference Between Physical & Chemical Properties

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    1.3 Physical and Chemical Properties – Chemistry

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    Frequently Asked Questions About what do physical and chemical properties have in common

    If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic what do physical and chemical properties have in common, then this section may help you solve it.

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    What characteristics of physical and chemical properties are similar?

    Both chemical and physical properties can be used to describe the state of matter, and heat can be used to change either of these properties.

    What connections and contrasts exist between chemical and physical properties?

    A substance’s physical properties, such as color, density, hardness, melting point, and boiling point, can be seen or measured without affecting the substance’s identity. A substance’s chemical property describes its capacity to go through a particular chemical change.

    What characteristic endures both chemical and physical modifications?

    It is possible for matter to change form through physical and chemical processes, but no matter is created or destroyed during any of these changes; rather, the same amount of matter exists before and after the change. This idea is known as the “Law of Conservation of Mass.”

    What connections exist between chemical and physical changes?

    Yes, in some circumstances both physical and chemical changes can take place at the same time. For instance, when a candle burns, the wax inside turns liquid, indicating that the change is physical in nature.

    What aspects of chemical and physical change are similar?

    The following are similarities between physical and chemical changes: In a physical change, only the physical characteristics—such as size, color, shape, etc.—are altered; in a chemical change, the chemical characteristics—such as basicity, acidity, etc.—are altered.

    Which two elements are most similar in terms of their chemical and physical characteristics?

    Cl and Ar are not in the same group because Ar is a noble gas and is much more inert than Cl, whereas Li and Na are in the same group and have a lot in common in terms of their properties.

    What are some points where chemical and physical digestion are similar and different?

    Without chemical digestion, your body wouldn’t be able to absorb nutrients from the foods you eat. Chemical digestion uses enzymes to break down food, as opposed to mechanical digestion, which uses physical actions like chewing and muscle contractions.

    What are the parallels and differences between the chemical and physical changes that occur in matter?

    Physical changes are easily reversible, meaning the original substance can be recovered, while chemical changes are irreversible, meaning the original substance cannot be recovered. A chemical change always results in one or more new substances.

    What is a change that occurs both physically and chemically?

    Physical and chemical changes occur simultaneously when a candle burns, for example, and when you eat food, to name another example.

    Why are a group’s physical and chemical properties similar?

    The number of valence electrons determines an element’s physical and chemical properties, and since all elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons, all elements in the same group have similar physical and chemical properties.

    What do you mean by chemical and physical interaction?

    A physical change in the appearance, smell, or straightforward display of a sample of matter occurs without a change in the composition of the matter in question, whereas a chemical reaction results in a change in the composition of the substances in question.

    Which substance’s chemical and physical characteristics are the same?

    A pure substance’s chemical and physical properties are the same in all samples.

    Give examples to illustrate what you mean by “physical and chemical change.”

    Burning, cooking, rusting, and rotting are examples of chemical changes; whereas, boiling, melting, freezing, and shredding are examples of physical changes; the latter occurs when matter changes forms but retains its chemical identity.

    What could change both chemically and physically?

    A candle burns, causing both chemical and physical changes.

    What are the physical and chemical changes in brief?

    A chemical change, also known as a chemical reaction, takes place when the atoms of a substance are rearranged and the bonds between the atoms are either broken or formed. Physical changes, such as breaking a stick or melting ice, do not alter a substance’s chemical composition.

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