10 what type of cell is shown at letter c Ideas

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Chapter 16: Endocrine System (Mastering) Flashcards

1

The amplification of the signal from a water-soluble hormone is
achieved through an increase in _______.

plasma membrane receptors

phosphodiesterase in the cytoplasm

cAMP in the cytoplasm

adenylate cyclase in the plasma membrane

water-soluble hormone in the blood

2

Water-soluble hormones affect target cells by binding to __________.

adenylate cyclase

cAMP

cytoplasmic receptors

protein kinases

plasma membrane receptors

plasma membrane receptors

3

How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells? Select the best answer.

Hormones travel through the lymphatic system to target cells.

Hormones are released at synapses adjacent to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

Hormones are produced by endocrine cells that are adjacent
to target cells.

Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

4

What is the role of activated protein kinases? Select the best answer.

Convert ATP to cAMP by phosphorylation.

Phosphorylate ADP to ATP.

Activate adenylate cyclase.

Phosphorylate proteins.

Degrade cAMP to AMP.

5

Cyclic AMP is degraded by __________.

AMP

protein kinase

phosphodiesterase

adenylate cyclase

G proteins

6

Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?

epinephrine

cortisol

insulin

7

What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

increasing protein kinases

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

phosphorylation of intracellular proteins

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

8

After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor,
what does the hormone complex do?

phosphorylates a protein activates a protein kinase

directly alters protein synthesis at the ribosome

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

9

Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the
receptor is empty?

thyroid hormone

insulin

cortisol

10

What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a
hormone binds to the receptor?

transcription factors

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

Receptors can’t enter the nucleus until the hormone is bound to it.

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

11

Art-based Question

Both high blood glucose levels and low blood glucose levels
are stimuli that trigger specific responses by the body. These
responses cause blood glucose levels to return to their set point. In
this activity, you will explore how this happens.

To review how the body regulates blood sugar levels, watch
this BioFlix animation: Homeostasis: Regulating Blood Sugar.

Part A – Regulating blood sugar. This diagram shows how the
body keeps blood glucose at a normal level.Drag each label to the
appropriate location on the diagram.

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A: Pancreas releases insulin

B: Body cells takes up more glucose

C: Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen

D: Blood glucose decreases to normal

E: Pancreas releases glucagon

F: Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose to the blood

G: Blood glucose returns to normal

12

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target
cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

True

False

13

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one
hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their
combined effects are amplified?

synergism

antagonism

summation

permissiveness

14

Hypocalcemia could be caused by the ______.

apoptosis of parathyroid cells

failure of osteoclasts to respond to PTH (parathyroid hormone/parathormone)

malfunction of the parathormone receptors in kidney tubule cells

All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

15

Art-based Question

What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the
posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?

oxytocin

cortisol

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)


card image

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

16

Art-based Question

Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored?

A

B

C

D

card image

C

17

What is the name for the type of hormone, secreted by the pituitary
that regulates other endocrine organs?

somatotropins

growth hormones

somatostatins

tropins

18

Which of the following hormones stimulates an increase in basal
metabolic rate as a tropic hormone?

thyroid-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

prolactin

follicle-stimulating hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone

19

Which hormone aids in water resorption?

thyroid hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

parathyroid hormone

antidiuretic hormone

20

What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone (GH)

luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

21

What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

control secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

control secretion of thyroid hormones

control secretion of oxytocin

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

22

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones
stimulated by which of the following hormones?

GH (growth hormone)

oxytocin

thyroid hormones

prolactin (PRL)

23

Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine
(“letdown”) reflex?

oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

cortisol

24

Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?

posterior pituitary

anterior pituitary

hypothalamus

kidney

25

What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the
circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

a circadian rhythm of release

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

negative feedback

26

Art-based Question

What type of cell is shown at letter C?

follicular cells

parafollicular cells

beta cells

parathyroid cells

card image

follicular cells

27

Art-based Question

What hormone is released by the cells pictured in letter D?

calcitonin

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

glucocorticoids

thyroid hormones

card image

calcitonin

28

Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?

pituitary

adrenal

thyroid

parathyroid

29

Art-based Question

What hormone, indicated by letter B, is released by the anterior
pituitary to target the adrenal cortex when we are under stress?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

angiotensin II

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

30

Art-based Question

Which of these conditions would promote aldosterone release from
the adrenal glands?

A drop in blood pressure is sensed in the kidney.

The body becomes parasympathetically activated.

An increase in blood pressure is sensed in the heart.

Blood potassium levels fall.

A drop in blood pressure is sensed in the kidney.

31

Art-based Question

Which letter represents the hormone that promotes a decrease in
blood pressure and a loss of sodium and water in urine?

A

B

C

D

card image

D

32

Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland
zone, or area, with the class of hormones it produces?

zona reticularis: aldosterone

medulla: glucocorticoids

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids

zona fasciculata: catecholemines

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids

33

Art-based Question

Which of the following best describes the hypoglycemic effect of insulin?

Insulin allows entry of glucose into most body cells.

Insulin encourages release of glucose into the blood by liver cells.

Insulin encourages synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and
noncarbohydrate molecules.

Insulin encourages catabolism of glycogen into glucose.

Insulin allows entry of glucose into most body cells.

34

Which of the following brain structures would cause central diabetes
insipidus if it were damaged?

hypothalamus

cerebellum

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cerebrum

pons

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Chapter 16: Endocrine System (Mastering) Flashcards

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Frequently Asked Questions About what type of cell is shown at letter c

If you have questions that need to be answered about the topic what type of cell is shown at letter c, then this section may help you solve it.

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Which cell type is depicted in this diagram?

Answer: A red blood cell is depicted in the diagram below.

What hormone is released by the cell in the letter D’s illustration?

The primary hormone that controls blood calcium levels is called calcitonin, and it is secreted by the cells shown in letter D.

What does the small circular structure that the letter C stands for in the quizlet represent?

The small circular structure denoted by the letter C is the mitochondrial small circular DNA chromosome, which encodes several mitochondrial proteins that are translated on the ribosomes, which are denoted by the small red dots, within the mitochondria.

What type of substance is kept in the thyroid follicle lumen?

thyroglobulin

What are the different cell types?

Plant and animal cell types can be identified using DNA sequencing and RT-PCR tests. Scientists use DNA sequencing to look at the order of nucleotides in the DNA molecule. Cell identification can be done using microscopes as well as a number of other techniques.

Who releases T3 and T4?

The body’s only cells that can absorb iodine are the thyroid cells, which use iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to create the hormones T3 and T4. These hormones are then released into the bloodstream and transported throughout the body, where they regulate metabolism (the process by which oxygen and calories are converted into energy).

What mitotic stage is the D-labeled cell in?

Cell D is in telophase in figure 8; cytokinesis, which does not occur during mitosis, occurs concurrently with telophase.

What molecule is at position C?

Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule? DNA is typically double-stranded, whereas RNA is typically single-stranded. Letter C marks two chains of DNA and the bonds between them. Letter D marks one chain of DNA.

What process does C denote?

The event denoted by C includes the fusion of a secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane and the subsequent release of the vesicle contents to the extracellular space. The process denoted by C is the exocytosis of secreted proteins.

How do C cells work?

C cells are a subtype of thyroid cell that produce the hormone calcitonin, which aids in maintaining blood calcium levels.

What would the thyroid’s cancerous tissue be referred to as?

The most prevalent type of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid cancer, which develops from follicular cells and typically grows slowly. It typically affects one lobe of the thyroid, though 10% to 20% of cases involve both lobes.

What is a cell of type C?

Duracell C size batteries are versatile alkaline batteries that are great for dependable device powering.

Where are the C cells produced?

C cells, or parafollicular cells, arise from the thyroid gland independently and migrate into it during embryonic development, where they settle in the spaces between the follicles to produce calcitonin.

How quickly does a cancerous thyroid nodule develop?

According to research reported in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, malignant thyroid nodules are more likely to grow at least 2 mm per year and increase in size than benign thyroid nodules.

How dangerous is a thyroid tumor?

Most thyroid nodules aren’t serious and don’t cause symptoms, and only a small percentage of thyroid nodules are cancerous. Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that develop within your thyroid, a small gland situated at the base of your neck, just above your breastbone.

How are thyroid nodules removed?

A lobectomy or total thyroidectomy may be used in thyroid nodule removal surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid that contains the nodule. In a lobectomy, the surgeon only removes the section of the thyroid (referred to as a lobe) that contains the lump. In a total thyroidectomy, the surgeon removes the entire thyroid.

Should thyroid tumors be surgically removed?

With the exception of some anaplastic thyroid cancers, surgery is the primary treatment for almost all thyroid cancer cases. If thyroid cancer is detected through a fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, surgery to remove the tumor and all or part of the remaining thyroid gland is typically advised.

Can you get rid of a thyroid tumor?

In the past, a procedure known as a near-total thyroidectomy was the standard treatment for cancerous nodules, but in the present, a more limited surgery in which only half of the thyroid is removed may be appropriate for some cancerous nodules.

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